© 2017 The original authors.

1. Target Audience

This document is a guide to the setup, administration, and configuration of WildFly.

1.1. Prerequisites

Before continuing, you should know how to download, install and run WildFly. For more information on these steps, refer here: Getting Started Guide.

1.2. Examples in this guide

The examples in this guide are largely expressed as XML configuration file excerpts, or by using a representation of the de-typed management model.

2. Core management concepts

2.1. Operating mode

WildFly can be booted in two different modes. A managed domain allows you to run and manage a multi-server topology. Alternatively, you can run a standalone server instance.

2.1.1. Standalone Server

For many use cases, the centralized management capability available via a managed domain is not necessary. For these use cases, a WildFly instance can be run as a "standalone server". A standalone server instance is an independent process, much like an JBoss Application Server 3, 4, 5, or 6 instance is. Standalone instances can be launched via the standalone.sh or standalone.bat launch scripts.

If more than one standalone instance is launched and multi-server management is desired, it is the user’s responsibility to coordinate management across the servers. For example, to deploy an application across all of the standalone servers, the user would need to individually deploy the application on each server.

It is perfectly possible to launch multiple standalone server instances and have them form an HA cluster, just like it was possible with JBoss Application Server 3, 4, 5 and 6.

2.1.2. Managed Domain

One of the primary new features of WildFly is the ability to manage multiple WildFly instances from a single control point. A collection of such servers is referred to as the members of a "domain" with a single Domain Controller process acting as the central management control point. All of the WildFly instances in the domain share a common management policy, with the Domain Controller acting to ensure that each server is configured according to that policy. Domains can span multiple physical (or virtual) machines, with all WildFly instances on a given host under the control of a special Host Controller process. One Host Controller instance is configured to act as the central Domain Controller. The Host Controller on each host interacts with the Domain Controller to control the lifecycle of the application server instances running on its host and to assist the Domain Controller in managing them.

When you launch a WildFly managed domain on a host (via the domain.sh or domain.bat launch scripts) your intent is to launch a Host Controller and usually at least one WildFly instance. On one of the hosts the Host Controller should be configured to act as the Domain Controller. See Domain Setup for details.

The following is an example managed domain topology:

images/DC-HC-Server.png

Host

Each "Host" box in the above diagram represents a physical or virtual host. A physical host can contain zero, one or more server instances.

Host Controller

When the domain.sh or domain.bat script is run on a host, a process known as a Host Controller is launched. The Host Controller is solely concerned with server management; it does not itself handle application server workloads. The Host Controller is responsible for starting and stopping the individual application server processes that run on its host, and interacts with the Domain Controller to help manage them.

Each Host Controller by default reads its configuration from the domain/configuration/host.xml file located in the unzipped WildFly installation on its host’s filesystem. The host.xml file contains configuration information that is specific to the particular host. Primarily:

  • the listing of the names of the actual WildFly instances that are meant to run off of this installation.

  • configuration of how the Host Controller is to contact the Domain Controller to register itself and access the domain configuration. This may either be configuration of how to find and contact a remote Domain Controller, or a configuration telling the Host Controller to itself act as the Domain Controller.

  • configuration of items that are specific to the local physical installation. For example, named interface definitions declared in domain.xml (see below) can be mapped to an actual machine-specific IP address in host.xml. Abstract path names in domain.xml can be mapped to actual filesystem paths in host.xml.

Domain Controller

One Host Controller instance is configured to act as the central management point for the entire domain, i.e. to be the Domain Controller. The primary responsibility of the Domain Controller is to maintain the domain’s central management policy, to ensure all Host Controllers are aware of its current contents, and to assist the Host Controllers in ensuring any running application server instances are configured in accordance with this policy. This central management policy is stored by default in the domain/configuration/domain.xml file in the unzipped WildFly installation on Domain Controller’s host’s filesystem.

A domain.xml file must be located in the domain/configuration directory of an installation that’s meant to run the Domain Controller. It does not need to be present in installations that are not meant to run a Domain Controller; i.e. those whose Host Controller is configured to contact a remote Domain Controller. The presence of a domain.xml file on such a server does no harm.

The domain.xml file includes, among other things, the configuration of the various "profiles" that WildFly instances in the domain can be configured to run. A profile configuration includes the detailed configuration of the various subsystems that comprise that profile (e.g. an embedded JBoss Web instance is a subsystem; a JBoss TS transaction manager is a subsystem, etc). The domain configuration also includes the definition of groups of sockets that those subsystems may open. The domain configuration also includes the definition of "server groups":

Server Group

A server group is set of server instances that will be managed and configured as one. In a managed domain each application server instance is a member of a server group. (Even if the group only has a single server, the server is still a member of a group.) It is the responsibility of the Domain Controller and the Host Controllers to ensure that all servers in a server group have a consistent configuration. They should all be configured with the same profile and they should have the same deployment content deployed.

The domain can have multiple server groups. The above diagram shows two server groups, "ServerGroupA" and "ServerGroupB". Different server groups can be configured with different profiles and deployments; for example in a domain with different tiers of servers providing different services. Different server groups can also run the same profile and have the same deployments; for example to support rolling application upgrade scenarios where a complete service outage is avoided by first upgrading the application on one server group and then upgrading a second server group.

An example server group definition is as follows:

<server-group name="main-server-group" profile="default">
    <socket-binding-group ref="standard-sockets"/>
    <deployments>
        <deployment name="foo.war_v1" runtime-name="foo.war" />
        <deployment name="bar.ear" runtime-name="bar.ear" />
    </deployments>
</server-group>

A server-group configuration includes the following required attributes:

  • name — the name of the server group

  • profile — the name of the profile the servers in the group should run

In addition, the following optional elements are available:

  • socket-binding-group — specifies the name of the default socket binding group to use on servers in the group. Can be overridden on a per-server basis in host.xml. If not provided in the server-group element, it must be provided for each server in host.xml.

  • deployments — the deployment content that should be deployed on the servers in the group.

  • deployment-overlays — the overlays and their associated deployments.

  • system-properties — system properties that should be set on all servers in the group

  • jvm — default jvm settings for all servers in the group. The Host Controller will merge these settings with any provided in host.xml to derive the settings to use to launch the server’s JVM. See JVM settings for further details.

Server

Each "Server" in the above diagram represents an actual application server instance. The server runs in a separate JVM process from the Host Controller. The Host Controller is responsible for launching that process. (In a managed domain the end user cannot directly launch a server process from the command line.)

The Host Controller synthesizes the server’s configuration by combining elements from the domain wide configuration (from domain.xml ) and the host-specific configuration (from host.xml ).

2.1.3. Deciding between running standalone servers or a managed domain

Which use cases are appropriate for managed domain and which are appropriate for standalone servers? A managed domain is all about coordinated multi-server management — with it WildFly provides a central point through which users can manage multiple servers, with rich capabilities to keep those servers' configurations consistent and the ability to roll out configuration changes (including deployments) to the servers in a coordinated fashion.

It’s important to understand that the choice between a managed domain and standalone servers is all about how your servers are managed, not what capabilities they have to service end user requests. This distinction is particularly important when it comes to high availability clusters. It’s important to understand that HA functionality is orthogonal to running standalone servers or a managed domain. That is, a group of standalone servers can be configured to form an HA cluster. The domain and standalone modes determine how the servers are managed, not what capabilities they provide.

So, given all that:

  • A single server installation gains nothing from running in a managed domain, so running a standalone server is a better choice.

  • For multi-server production environments, the choice of running a managed domain versus standalone servers comes down to whether the user wants to use the centralized management capabilities a managed domain provides. Some enterprises have developed their own sophisticated multi-server management capabilities and are comfortable coordinating changes across a number of independent WildFly instances. For these enterprises, a multi-server architecture comprised of individual standalone servers is a good option.

  • Running a standalone server is better suited for most development scenarios. Any individual server configuration that can be achieved in a managed domain can also be achieved in a standalone server, so even if the application being developed will eventually run in production on a managed domain installation, much (probably most) development can be done using a standalone server.

  • Running a managed domain mode can be helpful in some advanced development scenarios; i.e. those involving interaction between multiple WildFly instances. Developers may find that setting up various servers as members of a domain is an efficient way to launch a multi-server cluster.

2.2. General configuration concepts

For both a managed domain or a standalone server, a number of common configuration concepts apply:

2.2.1. Extensions

An extension is a module that extends the core capabilities of the server. The WildFly core is very simple and lightweight; most of the capabilities people associate with an application server are provided via extensions. An extension is packaged as a module in the modules folder. The user indicates that they want a particular extension to be available by including an <extension/> element naming its module in the domain.xml or standalone.xml file.

<extensions>
    [...]
    <extension module="org.jboss.as.transactions"/>
    <extension module="org.jboss.as.webservices" />
    <extension module="org.jboss.as.weld" />
    [...]
    <extension module="org.wildfly.extension.undertow"/>
</extensions>

2.2.2. Profiles and Subsystems

The most significant part of the configuration in domain.xml and standalone.xml is the configuration of one (in standalone.xml) or more (in domain.xml) "profiles". A profile is a named set of subsystem configurations. A subsystem is an added set of capabilities added to the core server by an extension (see "Extensions" above). A subsystem provides servlet handling capabilities; a subsystem provides an Jakarta Enterprise Beans container; a subsystem provides Jakarta Transactions, etc. A profile is a named list of subsystems, along with the details of each subsystem’s configuration. A profile with a large number of subsystems results in a server with a large set of capabilities. A profile with a small, focused set of subsystems will have fewer capabilities but a smaller footprint.

The content of an individual profile configuration looks largely the same in domain.xml and standalone.xml. The only difference is standalone.xml is only allowed to have a single profile element (the profile the server will run), while domain.xml can have many profiles, each of which can be mapped to one or more groups of servers.

The contents of individual subsystem configurations look exactly the same between domain.xml and standalone.xml.

2.2.3. Paths

A logical name for a filesystem path. The domain.xml, host.xml and standalone.xml configurations all include a section where paths can be declared. Other sections of the configuration can then reference those paths by their logical name, rather than having to include the full details of the path (which may vary on different machines). For example, the logging subsystem configuration includes a reference to the " `jboss.server.log.dir`" path that points to the server’s " `log`" directory.

<file relative-to="jboss.server.log.dir" path="server.log"/>

WildFly automatically provides a number of standard paths without any need for the user to configure them in a configuration file:

  • jboss.home.dir - the root directory of the WildFly distribution

  • user.home - user’s home directory

  • user.dir - user’s current working directory

  • java.home - java installation directory

  • jboss.server.base.dir - root directory for an individual server instance

  • jboss.server.config.dir - directory the server will use for configuration file storage

  • jboss.server.data.dir - directory the server will use for persistent data file storage

  • jboss.server.log.dir - directory the server will use for log file storage

  • jboss.server.temp.dir - directory the server will use for temporary file storage

  • jboss.controller.temp.dir - directory the server will use for temporary file storage

  • jboss.domain.servers.dir - directory under which a host controller will create the working area for individual server instances (managed domain mode only)

Users can add their own paths or override all except the first 5 of the above by adding a <path/> element to their configuration file.

<path name="example" path="example" relative-to="jboss.server.data.dir"/>

The attributes are:

  • name — the name of the path.

  • path — the actual filesystem path. Treated as an absolute path, unless the 'relative-to' attribute is specified, in which case the value is treated as relative to that path.

  • relative-to — (optional) the name of another previously named path, or of one of the standard paths provided by the system.

A <path/> element in a domain.xml need not include anything more than the name attribute; i.e. it need not include any information indicating what the actual filesystem path is:

<path name="x"/>

Such a configuration simply says, "There is a path named 'x' that other parts of the domain.xml configuration can reference. The actual filesystem location pointed to by 'x' is host-specific and will be specified in each machine’s host.xml file." If this approach is used, there must be a path element in each machine’s host.xml that specifies what the actual filesystem path is:

<path name="x" path="/var/x" />

A <path/> element in a standalone.xml must include the specification of the actual filesystem path.

2.2.4. Interfaces

A logical name for a network interface/IP address/host name to which sockets can be bound. The domain.xml, host.xml and standalone.xml configurations all include a section where interfaces can be declared. Other sections of the configuration can then reference those interfaces by their logical name, rather than having to include the full details of the interface (which may vary on different machines). An interface configuration includes the logical name of the interface as well as information specifying the criteria to use for resolving the actual physical address to use. See Interfaces and ports for further details.

An <interface/> element in a domain.xml need not include anything more than the name attribute; i.e. it need not include any information indicating what the actual IP address associated with the name is:

<interface name="internal"/>

Such a configuration simply says, "There is an interface named 'internal' that other parts of the domain.xml configuration can reference. The actual IP address pointed to by 'internal' is host-specific and will be specified in each machine’s host.xml file." If this approach is used, there must be an interface element in each machine’s host.xml that specifies the criteria for determining the IP address:

<interface name="internal">
   <nic name="eth1"/>
</interface>

An <interface/> element in a standalone.xml must include the criteria for determining the IP address.

See Interface declarations for full details.

2.2.5. Socket Bindings and Socket Binding Groups

A socket binding is a named configuration for a socket.

The domain.xml and standalone.xml configurations both include a section where named socket configurations can be declared. Other sections of the configuration can then reference those sockets by their logical name, rather than having to include the full details of the socket configuration (which may vary on different machines). See Socket Binding Groups for full details.

2.2.6. System Properties

System property values can be set in a number of places in domain.xml, host.xml and standalone.xml. The values in standalone.xml are set as part of the server boot process. Values in domain.xml and host.xml are applied to servers when they are launched.

When a system property is configured in domain.xml or host.xml, the servers it ends up being applied to depends on where it is set. Setting a system property in a child element directly under the domain.xml root results in the property being set on all servers. Setting it in a <system-property/> element inside a <server-group/> element in domain.xml results in the property being set on all servers in the group. Setting it in a child element directly under the host.xml root results in the property being set on all servers controlled by that host’s Host Controller. Finally, setting it in a <system-property/> element inside a <server/> element in host.xml result in the property being set on that server. The same property can be configured in multiple locations, with a value in a <server/> element taking precedence over a value specified directly under the host.xml root element, the value in a host.xml taking precedence over anything from domain.xml, and a value in a <server-group/> element taking precedence over a value specified directly under the domain.xml root element.

2.2.7. Script Configuration Files

Scripts are located in the $JBOSS_HOME/bin directory. Within this directory you will find script configuration files for standalone and domain startup scripts for each platform. These files can be used to configure your environment without having to edit the scripts themselves. For example, you can configure the JAVA_OPTS environment variable to configure the JVM before the container is launched.

Standalone Script Configuration Files:
  • standalone.conf invoked from standalone.sh

  • standalone.conf.bat invoked from standalone.bat

  • standalone.conf.ps1 invoked from standalone.ps1

Domain Script Configuration Files:
  • domain.conf invoked from domain.sh

  • domain.conf.bat invoked from domain.bat

  • domain.conf.ps1 invoked from domain.ps1

By default, these are in the $JBOSS_HOME/bin directory. However, you can set the STANDALONE_CONF environment variable for standalone servers or DOMAIN_CONF environment variable for domain servers with a value of the absolute path to the file.

Common Script Configuration Files

Starting with WildFly 23, common configuration files were introduced. These files are invoked from every script in the $JBOSS_HOME/bin directory. While these configuration files are not present in the directory by default, they can be added. You can simply just add the common.conf configuration file for the script type you want to execute and all scripts in the directory will invoke the configuration script.

  • common.conf for bash scripts

  • common.conf.bat for Windows batch scripts

  • common.conf.ps1 for PowerShell scripts

You can also set the COMMON_CONF environment variable to have this configuration script live outside the $JBOSS_HOME/bin directory.

If you provide a common configuration file it will be invoked before the standalone and domain script configuration files. For example invoking standalone.sh first invokes the common.conf then later invokes the standalone.conf.

2.3. Management resources

When WildFly parses your configuration files at boot, or when you use one of the AS’s Management Clients you are adding, removing or modifying management resources in the AS’s internal management model. A WildFly management resource has the following characteristics:

2.3.1. Address

All WildFly management resources are organized in a tree. The path to the node in the tree for a particular resource is its address. Each segment in a resource’s address is a key/value pair:

  • The key is the resource’s type, in the context of its parent. So, for example, the root resource for a standalone server has children of type subsystem, interface, socket-binding, etc. The resource for the subsystem that provides the AS’s webserver capability has children of type connector and virtual-server. The resource for the subsystem that provides the AS’s messaging server capability has, among others, children of type jms-queue and jms-topic.

  • The value is the name of a particular resource of the given type, e.g web or messaging for subsystems or http or https for web subsystem connectors.

The full address for a resource is the ordered list of key/value pairs that lead from the root of the tree to the resource. Typical notation is to separate the elements in the address with a '/' and to separate the key and the value with an '=':

  • /subsystem=undertow/server=default-server/http-listener=default

  • /subsystem=messaging/jms-queue=testQueue

  • /interface=public

When using the HTTP API, a '/' is used to separate the key and the value instead of an '=':

2.3.2. Operations

Querying or modifying the state of a resource is done via an operation. An operation has the following characteristics:

  • A string name

  • Zero or more named parameters. Each parameter has a string name, and a value of type org.jboss.dmr.ModelNode (or, when invoked via the CLI, the text representation of a ModelNode; when invoked via the HTTP API, the JSON representation of a ModelNode.) Parameters may be optional.

  • A return value, which will be of type org.jboss.dmr.ModelNode (or, when invoked via the CLI, the text representation of a ModelNode; when invoked via the HTTP API, the JSON representation of a ModelNode.)

Every resource except the root resource will have an add operation and should have a remove operation ("should" because in WildFly 26 many do not). The parameters for the add operation vary depending on the resource. The remove operation has no parameters.

There are also a number of "global" operations that apply to all resources. See Global operations for full details.

The operations a resource supports can themselves be determined by invoking an operation: the read-operation-names operation. Once the name of an operation is known, details about its parameters and return value can be determined by invoking the read-operation-description operation. For example, to learn the names of the operations exposed by the root resource for a standalone server, and then learn the full details of one of them, via the CLI one would:

[standalone@localhost:9990 /] :read-operation-names
{
    "outcome" => "success",
    "result" => [
        "add-namespace",
        "add-schema-location",
        "delete-snapshot",
        "full-replace-deployment",
        "list-snapshots",
        "read-attribute",
        "read-children-names",
        "read-children-resources",
        "read-children-types",
        "read-config-as-xml",
        "read-operation-description",
        "read-operation-names",
        "read-resource",
        "read-resource-description",
        "reload",
        "remove-namespace",
        "remove-schema-location",
        "replace-deployment",
        "shutdown",
        "take-snapshot",
        "upload-deployment-bytes",
        "upload-deployment-stream",
        "upload-deployment-url",
        "validate-address",
        "write-attribute"
    ]
}
[standalone@localhost:9990 /] :read-operation-description(name=upload-deployment-url)
{
    "outcome" => "success",
    "result" => {
        "operation-name" => "upload-deployment-url",
        "description" => "Indicates that the deployment content available at the included URL should be added to the deployment content repository. Note that this operation does not indicate the content should be deployed into the runtime.",
        "request-properties" => {"url" => {
            "type" => STRING,
            "description" => "The URL at which the deployment content is available for upload to the domain's or standalone server's deployment content repository.. Note that the URL must be accessible from the target of the operation (i.e. the Domain Controller or standalone server).",
            "required" => true,
            "min-length" => 1,
            "nillable" => false
        }},
        "reply-properties" => {
            "type" => BYTES,
            "description" => "The hash of managed deployment content that has been uploaded to the domain's or standalone server's deployment content repository.",
            "min-length" => 20,
            "max-length" => 20,
            "nillable" => false
        }
    }
}

See Descriptions below for more on how to learn about the operations a resource exposes.

2.3.3. Attributes

Management resources expose information about their state as attributes. Attributes have string name, and a value of type org.jboss.dmr.ModelNode (or: for the CLI, the text representation of a ModelNode; for HTTP API, the JSON representation of a ModelNode.)

Attributes can either be read-only or read-write. Reading and writing attribute values is done via the global read-attribute and write-attribute operations.

The read-attribute operation takes a single parameter "name" whose value is a the name of the attribute. For example, to read the "port" attribute of a socket-binding resource via the CLI:

[standalone@localhost:9990 /] /socket-binding-group=standard-sockets/socket-binding=https:read-attribute(name=port)
{
    "outcome" => "success",
    "result" => 8443
}

If an attribute is writable, the write-attribute operation is used to mutate its state. The operation takes two parameters:

  • name – the name of the attribute

  • value – the value of the attribute

For example, to read the "port" attribute of a socket-binding resource via the CLI:

[standalone@localhost:9990 /] /socket-binding-group=standard-sockets/socket-binding=https:write-attribute(name=port,value=8444)
{"outcome" => "success"}

Attributes can have one of two possible storage types:

  • CONFIGURATION – means the value of the attribute is stored in the persistent configuration; i.e. in the domain.xml, host.xml or standalone.xml file from which the resource’s configuration was read.

  • RUNTIME – the attribute value is only available from a running server; the value is not stored in the persistent configuration. A metric (e.g. number of requests serviced) is a typical example of a RUNTIME attribute.

The values of all of the attributes a resource exposes can be obtained via the read-resource operation, with the "include-runtime" parameter set to "true". For example, from the CLI:

[standalone@localhost:9990 /] /subsystem=undertow/server=default-server/http-listener=default:read-resource(include-runtime=true)
{
    "outcome" => "success",
    "result" => {
        "allow-encoded-slash" => false,
        "allow-equals-in-cookie-value" => false,
        "always-set-keep-alive" => true,
        "buffer-pipelined-data" => true,
        "buffer-pool" => "default",
        "bytes-received" => 0L,
        "bytes-sent" => 0L,
        "certificate-forwarding" => false,
        "decode-url" => true,
        "disallowed-methods" => ["TRACE"],
        "enable-http2" => false,
        "enabled" => true,
        "error-count" => 0L,
        "max-buffered-request-size" => 16384,
        "max-connections" => undefined,
        "max-cookies" => 200,
        "max-header-size" => 1048576,
        "max-headers" => 200,
        "max-parameters" => 1000,
        "max-post-size" => 10485760L,
        "max-processing-time" => 0L,
        "no-request-timeout" => undefined,
        "processing-time" => 0L,
        "proxy-address-forwarding" => false,
        "read-timeout" => undefined,
        "receive-buffer" => undefined,
        "record-request-start-time" => false,
        "redirect-socket" => "https",
        "request-count" => 0L,
        "request-parse-timeout" => undefined,
        "resolve-peer-address" => false,
        "send-buffer" => undefined,
        "socket-binding" => "http",
        "tcp-backlog" => undefined,
        "tcp-keep-alive" => undefined,
        "url-charset" => "UTF-8",
        "worker" => "default",
        "write-timeout" => undefined
    }
}

Omit the "include-runtime" parameter (or set it to "false") to limit output to those attributes whose values are stored in the persistent configuration:

[standalone@localhost:9990 /] /subsystem=undertow/server=default-server/http-listener=default:read-resource(include-runtime=false)
{
    "outcome" => "success",
    "result" => {
        "allow-encoded-slash" => false,
        "allow-equals-in-cookie-value" => false,
        "always-set-keep-alive" => true,
        "buffer-pipelined-data" => true,
        "buffer-pool" => "default",
        "certificate-forwarding" => false,
        "decode-url" => true,
        "disallowed-methods" => ["TRACE"],
        "enable-http2" => false,
        "enabled" => true,
        "max-buffered-request-size" => 16384,
        "max-connections" => undefined,
        "max-cookies" => 200,
        "max-header-size" => 1048576,
        "max-headers" => 200,
        "max-parameters" => 1000,
        "max-post-size" => 10485760L,
        "no-request-timeout" => undefined,
        "proxy-address-forwarding" => false,
        "read-timeout" => undefined,
        "receive-buffer" => undefined,
        "record-request-start-time" => false,
        "redirect-socket" => "https",
        "request-parse-timeout" => undefined,
        "resolve-peer-address" => false,
        "send-buffer" => undefined,
        "socket-binding" => "http",
        "tcp-backlog" => undefined,
        "tcp-keep-alive" => undefined,
        "url-charset" => "UTF-8",
        "worker" => "default",
        "write-timeout" => undefined
    }
}

See Descriptions below for how to learn more about the attributes a particular resource exposes.

Override an Attribute Value with an Environment Variable

It is possible to override the value of any simple attribute by providing an environment variable with a name that maps to the attribute (and its resource).

Complex attributes (which have their type set to LIST, OBJECT, or PROPERTY) can not be overridden using an environment variable.

If there is an environment variable with such a name, the management resource will use the value of this environment variable when the management resource validates and sets the attribute value. This takes place before the attribute value is resolved (if it contains an expression) or corrected.

This feature is disabled by default. To enable it, the environment variable WILDFLY_OVERRIDING_ENV_VARS must be set (its value is not relevant):

export WILDFLY_OVERRIDING_ENV_VARS=1

Mapping between the resource address and attribute and the environment variable

The name of the environment variable is based on the address of the resource and the name of the attribute:

  1. take the address of the resource (e.g. /subsystem=undertow/server=default-server/http-listener=default)

    • /subsystem=undertow/server=default-server/http-listener=default

  2. remove the leading slash (/)

    • subsystem=undertow/server=default-server/http-listener=default

  3. append two underscores (__) and the name of the attribute (e.g. proxy-address-forwarding)

    • subsystem=undertow/server=default-server/http-listener=default__proxy-address-forwarding

  4. Replace all non-alphanumeric characters with an underscore (_) and put it in upper case

    • SUBSYSTEM_UNDERTOW_SERVER_DEFAULT_SERVER_HTTP_LISTENER_DEFAULT__PROXY_ADDRESS_FORWARDING

If WildFly is started with that environment variable, the value of the proxy-address-forwarding attribute on the /subsystem=undertow/server=default-server/http-listener=default will be set to the value of the environment variable:

$ WILDFLY_OVERRIDING_ENV_VARS=1 \
  SUBSYSTEM_UNDERTOW_SERVER_DEFAULT_SERVER_HTTP_LISTENER_DEFAULT__PROXY_ADDRESS_FORWARDING=false \
  ./bin/standalone.sh
$ ./bin/jboss-cli.sh -c --command="/subsystem=undertow/server=default-server/http-listener=default:read-attribute(name=proxy-address-forwarding)"
{
    "outcome" => "success",
    "result" => "false"

If an attribute value is determined from an environment variable, the next time the configuration is persisted, that value from the environment variable will be persisted. Until an operation triggers such persistence of the configuration file, the configuration file will not reflect the current running configuration.

2.3.4. Children

Management resources may support child resources. The types of children a resource supports (e.g. connector for the web subsystem resource) can be obtained by querying the resource’s description (see Descriptions below) or by invoking the read-children-types operation. Once you know the legal child types, you can query the names of all children of a given type by using the global read-children-types operation. The operation takes a single parameter "child-type" whose value is the type. For example, a resource representing a socket binding group has children. To find the type of those children and the names of resources of that type via the CLI one could:

[standalone@localhost:9990 /] /socket-binding-group=standard-sockets:read-children-types
{
    "outcome" => "success",
    "result" => ["socket-binding"]
}
[standalone@localhost:9990 /] /socket-binding-group=standard-sockets:read-children-names(child-type=socket-binding)
{
    "outcome" => "success",
    "result" => [
        "http",
        "https",
        "jmx-connector-registry",
        "jmx-connector-server",
        "jndi",
        "remoting",
        "txn-recovery-environment",
        "txn-status-manager"
    ]
}

2.3.5. Descriptions

All resources expose metadata that describes their attributes, operations and child types. This metadata is itself obtained by invoking one or more of the global operations each resource supports. We showed examples of the read-operation-names, read-operation-description, read-children-types and read-children-names operations above.

The read-resource-description operation can be used to find the details of the attributes and child types associated with a resource. For example, using the CLI:

[standalone@localhost:9990 /] /socket-binding-group=standard-sockets:read-resource-description
{
    "outcome" => "success",
    "result" => {
        "description" => "Contains a list of socket configurations.",
        "head-comment-allowed" => true,
        "tail-comment-allowed" => false,
        "attributes" => {
            "name" => {
                "type" => STRING,
                "description" => "The name of the socket binding group.",
                "required" => true,
                "head-comment-allowed" => false,
                "tail-comment-allowed" => false,
                "access-type" => "read-only",
                "storage" => "configuration"
            },
            "default-interface" => {
                "type" => STRING,
                "description" => "Name of an interface that should be used as the interface for any sockets that do not explicitly declare one.",
                "required" => true,
                "head-comment-allowed" => false,
                "tail-comment-allowed" => false,
                "access-type" => "read-write",
                "storage" => "configuration"
            },
            "port-offset" => {
                "type" => INT,
                "description" => "Increment to apply to the base port values defined in the socket bindings to derive the runtime values to use on this server.",
                "required" => false,
                "head-comment-allowed" => true,
                "tail-comment-allowed" => false,
                "access-type" => "read-write",
                "storage" => "configuration"
            }
        },
        "operations" => {},
        "children" => {"socket-binding" => {
            "description" => "The individual socket configurtions.",
            "min-occurs" => 0,
            "model-description" => undefined
        }}
    }
}

Note the "operations" ⇒ }} in the output above. If the command had included the {{operations parameter (i.e. /socket-binding-group=standard-sockets:read-resource-description(operations=true)) the output would have included the description of each operation supported by the resource.

See the Global operations section for details on other parameters supported by the read-resource-description operation and all the other globally available operations.

2.3.6. Comparison to JMX MBeans

WildFly management resources are conceptually quite similar to Open MBeans. They have the following primary differences:

  • WildFly management resources are organized in a tree structure. The order of the key value pairs in a resource’s address is significant, as it defines the resource’s position in the tree. The order of the key properties in a JMX ObjectName is not significant.

  • In an Open MBean attribute values, operation parameter values and operation return values must either be one of the simple JDK types (String, Boolean, Integer, etc) or implement either the javax.management.openmbean.CompositeData interface or the javax.management.openmbean.TabularData interface. WildFly management resource attribute values, operation parameter values and operation return values are all of type org.jboss.dmr.ModelNode.

2.3.7. Basic structure of the management resource trees

As noted above, management resources are organized in a tree structure. The structure of the tree depends on whether you are running a standalone server or a managed domain.

Standalone server

The structure of the managed resource tree is quite close to the structure of the standalone.xml configuration file.

  • The root resource

    • extension – extensions installed in the server

    • path – paths available on the server

    • system-property – system properties set as part of the configuration (i.e. not on the command line)

    • core-service=management – the server’s core management services

    • core-service=service-container – resource for the JBoss MSC ServiceContainer that’s at the heart of the AS

    • subsystem – the subsystems installed on the server. The bulk of the management model will be children of type subsystem

    • interface – interface configurations

    • socket-binding-group – the central resource for the server’s socket bindings

      • socket-binding – individual socket binding configurations

    • deployment – available deployments on the server

Managed domain

In a managed domain, the structure of the managed resource tree spans the entire domain, covering both the domain wide configuration (e.g. what’s in domain.xml, the host specific configuration for each host (e.g. what’s in host.xml, and the resources exposed by each running application server. The Host Controller processes in a managed domain provide access to all or part of the overall resource tree. How much is available depends on whether the management client is interacting with the Host Controller that is acting as the master Domain Controller. If the Host Controller is the master Domain Controller, then the section of the tree for each host is available. If the Host Controller is a slave to a remote Domain Controller, then only the portion of the tree associated with that host is available.

  • The root resource for the entire domain. The persistent configuration associated with this resource and its children, except for those of type host, is persisted in the domain.xml file on the Domain Controller.

    • extension – extensions available in the domain

    • path – paths available on across the domain

    • system-property – system properties set as part of the configuration (i.e. not on the command line) and available across the domain

    • profile – sets of subsystem configurations that can be assigned to server groups

      • subsystem – configuration of subsystems that are part of the profile

    • interface – interface configurations

    • socket-binding-group – sets of socket bindings configurations that can be applied to server groups

      • socket-binding – individual socket binding configurations

    • deployment – deployments available for assignment to server groups

    • deployment-overlay — deployment-overlays content available to overlay deployments in server groups

    • server-group – server group configurations

    • host – the individual Host Controllers. Each child of this type represents the root resource for a particular host. The persistent configuration associated with one of these resources or its children is persisted in the host’s host.xml file.

      • path – paths available on each server on the host

      • system-property – system properties to set on each server on the host

      • core-service=management – the Host Controller’s core management services

      • interface – interface configurations that apply to the Host Controller or servers on the host

      • jvm – JVM configurations that can be applied when launching servers

      • server-config – configuration describing how the Host Controller should launch a server; what server group configuration to use, and any server-specific overrides of items specified in other resources

      • server – the root resource for a running server. Resources from here and below are not directly persisted; the domain-wide and host level resources contain the persistent configuration that drives a server

        • extension – extensions installed in the server

        • path – paths available on the server

        • system-property – system properties set as part of the configuration (i.e. not on the command line)

        • core-service=management – the server’s core management services

        • core-service=service-container – resource for the JBoss MSC ServiceContainer that’s at the heart of the AS

        • subsystem – the subsystems installed on the server. The bulk of the management model will be children of type subsystem

        • interface – interface configurations

        • socket-binding-group – the central resource for the server’s socket bindings

          • socket-binding – individual socket binding configurations

        • deployment – available deployments on the server

        • deployment-overlay — available overlays on the server

3. Management Clients

WildFly offers three different approaches to configure and manage servers: a web interface, a command line client and a set of XML configuration files. Regardless of the approach you choose, the configuration is always synchronized across the different views and finally persisted to the XML files.

3.1. Web Management Interface

The web interface is a GWT application that uses the HTTP management API to configure a management domain or standalone server.

3.1.1. HTTP Management Endpoint

The HTTP API endpoint is the entry point for management clients that rely on the HTTP protocol to integrate with the management layer. It uses a JSON encoded protocol and a de-typed, RPC style API to describe and execute management operations against a managed domain or standalone server. It’s used by the web console, but offers integration capabilities for a wide range of other clients too.

The HTTP API endpoint is co-located with either the domain controller or a standalone server. By default, it runs on port 9990:

<management-interfaces>
 [...]
  <http-interface http-authentication-factory="management-http-authentication">
    <http-upgrade enabled="true" sasl-authentication-factory="management-sasl-authentication"/>
    <socket-binding http="management-http"/>
  </http-interface>
<management-interfaces>

~(See standalone/configuration/standalone.xml or domain/configuration/host.xml)~

The HTTP API Endpoint serves two different contexts. One for executing management operations and another one that allows you to access the web interface:

3.1.2. Accessing the web console

The web console is served through the same port as the HTTP management API. It can be accessed by pointing your browser to:

Default URL

By default the web interface can be accessed here: http://localhost:9990/console.

3.1.3. Custom HTTP Headers

For the responses returned from the HTTP management interface it is also possible to define custom constant HTTP headers that will be added to any response based on matching a configured prefix against the request path.

As an example it could be desirable to add a HTTP header X-Help which points users to the correct location to obtain assistance. The following management operation can be executed within the CLI to activate returning this header on all requests.

[standalone@localhost:9990 /]  /core-service=management/management-interface=http-interface: \
    write-attribute(name=constant-headers, value=[{path="/", \
    headers=[{name="X-Help", value="wildfly.org"}]}])

The responses to all requests to the HTTP management interface will now include the header X-Help with the value wildfly.org.

The resulting configuration will look like: -

<management-interfaces>
  <http-interface http-authentication-factory="management-http-authentication">
    <http-upgrade enabled="true" sasl-authentication-factory="management-sasl-authentication"/>
        <socket-binding http="management-http"/>
        <constant-headers>
            <header-mapping path="/">
                <header name="X-Help" value="wildfly.org"/>
            </header-mapping>
        </constant-headers>
    </http-interface>
</management-interfaces>

The example here has illustrated adding a single header for all requests matching the path prefix / i.e. every request. More advanced mappings can be defined by specifying a mapping for a more specific path prefix such as /management.

If a request matches multiple mappings such as a request to /management where mappings for / and /management have been specified the headers from all of the mappings will be applied to the corresponding request.

Within a single mapping it is also possible to define multiple headers which should be set on the corresponding response.

As the constant-headers attribute is set verification will be performed to verify that the HTTP headers specified are only making use of allowed characters as specified in the HTTP specification RFCs.

Additionally as they have special handling within the management interface overriding the following headers is disallowed and attempts to set these will result in an error being reported.

  • Connection

  • Content-Length

  • Content-Type

  • Date

  • Transfer-Encoding

The configured headers are set at the very end of processing the request immediately before the response is returned to the client, this will mean any of the configured headers will override the same headers set by the corresponding endpoint.

3.2. Command Line Interface

The Command Line Interface (CLI) is a management tool for a managed domain or standalone server. It allows a user to connect to the domain controller or a standalone server and execute management operations available through the de-typed management model.

3.2.1. Running the CLI

Depending on the operating system, the CLI is launched using jboss-cli.sh or jboss-cli.bat located in the WildFly bin directory. For further information on the default directory structure, please consult the " Getting Started Guide".

The first thing to do after the CLI has started is to connect to a managed WildFly instance. This is done using the command connect, e.g.

./bin/jboss-cli.sh
You are disconnected at the moment. Type 'connect' to connect to the server
or 'help' for the list of supported commands.
[disconnected /]
 
[disconnected /] connect
[domain@localhost:9990 /]
 
[domain@localhost:9990 /] quit
Closed connection to localhost:9990

localhost:9990 is the default host and port combination for the WildFly CLI client.

The host and the port of the server can be provided as an optional parameter, if the server is not listening on localhost:9990.

./bin/jboss-cli.sh
You are disconnected at the moment. Type 'connect' to connect to the server
[disconnected /] connect 192.168.0.10:9990
Connected to standalone controller at 192.168.0.1:9990

The :9990 is not required as the CLI will use port 9990 by default. The port needs to be provided if the server is listening on some other port.

To terminate the session type quit.

The jboss-cli script accepts a --connect parameter: ./jboss-cli.sh --connect

The --controller parameter can be used to specify the host and port of the server: ./jboss-cli.sh --connect --controller=192.168.0.1:9990

Help is also available:

In order to list the set of commands that are currently available in the current context use the option --commands (NB: the following examples are not displaying an exhaustive set of CLI commands, more and/or different commands could be available in your running CLI instance):

[domain@localhost:9990 /] help --commands
Commands available in the current context:
batch               connection-factory  deployment-overlay  if                  patch               reload              try
cd                  connection-info     echo                jdbc-driver-info    pwd                 rollout-plan        undeploy
clear               data-source         echo-dmr            jms-queue           quit                run-batch           unset
command             deploy              help                jms-topic           read-attribute      set                 version
connect             deployment-info     history             ls                  read-operation      shutdown            xa-data-source
To read a description of a specific command execute 'help <command name>'.

The help command can print help for any command or operation. For operations, the operation description is formatted as a command help (synopsis, description and options). Some commands (eg: patch) expose two levels of documentation. A high level description for the command itself and a dedicated help content for each action (eg: apply). The help documentation of each command makes it clear if this two levels are available or not.

Use Tab-completion to discover the set of commands and operations:

help <TAB>

The list of all commands (enabled or not) is displayed.

Examples

  • Display the help of the patch command:

help patch
  • Display the help of the apply action of the patch command:

help patch apply
  • Display the description of the elytron key-store resource add operation formatted as a command help content:

help /subsystem=elytron/key-store=?:add

3.2.2. Keyboard navigation

In order to efficiently edit commands, the CLI allows you to navigate the words and characters of a command using the keyboard.

NB: Part of this navigation is platform dependent.

Go left (back) one word
  • Alt+B : Linux, Solaris, HP-UX, Windows.

  • Ctrl+LeftArrow: Linux, Solaris, HP-UX.

  • Alt+LeftArrow: Mac OSX.

Go right (forward) one word
  • Alt+F : Linux, Solaris, HP-UX, Windows.

  • Ctrl+RightArrow: Linux, Solaris, HP-UX.

  • Alt+RightArrow: Mac OSX.

Go to the beginning of the line
  • Ctrl+A: All supported platforms.

  • HOME: Linux, Solaris, HP-UX, Windows

Go to the end of the line
  • Ctrl+E: All supported platforms.

  • END: Linux, Solaris, HP-UX, Windows

Go left (back) one character
  • Ctrl+B or LeftArrow: All supported platforms.

Go right (forward) one character
  • Ctrl+F or RightArrow: All supported platforms.

3.2.3. Non-interactive Mode

The CLI can also be run in non-interactive mode to support scripts and other types of command line or batch processing. The --command and --commands arguments can be used to pass a command or a list of commands to execute. Additionally a --file argument is supported which enables CLI commands to be provided from a text file.

For example the following command can be used to list all the current deployments

$ ./bin/jboss-cli.sh --connect --commands=ls\ deployment
sample.war
business.jar

The output can be combined with other shell commands for further processing, for example to find out what .war files are deployed:

$ ./bin/jboss-cli.sh --connect --commands=ls\ deployment | grep war
sample.war

In order to match a command with its output, you can provide the option --echo-command (or add the XML element <echo-command> to the CLI configuration file) in order to make the CLI to include the prompt
command + options in the output. With this option enabled, any executed command will be added to the output.

3.2.4. Command timeout

By default CLI command and operation executions are not timely bounded. It means that a command never ending its execution will make the CLI process to be stuck and unresponsive. To protect the CLI from this behavior, one can set a command execution timeout.

Command Timeout behavior

In interactive mode, when a timeout occurs, an error message is displayed then the console prompt is made available to type new commands. In non interactive mode (executing a script or a list of commands), when a timeout occurs, an exception is thrown and the CLI execution is stopped. In both modes (interactive and non interactive), when a timeout occurs, the CLI will make a best effort to cancel the associated server side activities.

Configuring the Command timeout
  • Add the XML element <command-timeout>\{num seconds}</command-timeout> to the CLI XML configuration file.

  • Add the option - -command-timeout=\{num seconds} to the CLI command line. This will override any value set in the XML configuration file.

Managing the Command Timeout

Once the CLI is running, the timeout can be adjusted to cope with the commands to execute. For example a batch command will need a longer timeout than a non batch one. The command command-timeout allows to get, set and reset the command timeout.

Retrieving the command timeout

The command command-timeout get displays the current timeout in seconds. A timeout of 0 means no timeout.

[standalone@localhost:9990 /] command-timeout get
0
Setting the command timeout

The command command-timeout set update the timeout value to a number of seconds. If a timeout has been set via configuration (XML file or option), it is overridden by the set action.

[standalone@localhost:9990 /] command-timeout set 10
Resetting the command timeout

The command command-timeout reset \{config|default} allows to set the timeout to its configuration value (XML file or option) or default value (0 second). If no configuration value is set, resetting to the configuration value sets the timeout to its default value (0 seconds).

[standalone@localhost:9990 /] command-timeout reset config
[standalone@localhost:9990 /] command-timeout reset default

3.2.5. Default Native Management Interface Security

The native interface shares the same security configuration as the http interface, however we also support a local authentication mechanism which means that the CLI can authenticate against the local WildFly instance without prompting the user for a username and password. This mechanism only works if the user running the CLI has read access to the standalone/tmp/auth folder or domain/tmp/auth folder under the respective WildFly installation - if the local mechanism fails then the CLI will fallback to prompting for a username and password for a user configured as in Default HTTP Interface Security.

Establishing a CLI connection to a remote server will require a username and password by default.

3.2.6. Operation Requests

Operation requests allow for low level interaction with the management model. They are different from the high level commands (i.e. create-jms-queue) in that they allow you to read and modify the server configuration as if you were editing the XML configuration files directly. The configuration is represented as a tree of addressable resources, where each node in the tree (aka resource) offers a set of operations to execute.

An operation request basically consists of three parts: The address, an operation name and an optional set of parameters.

The formal specification for an operation request is:

[/node-type=node-name (/node-type=node-name)*] : operation-name [( [parameter-name=parameter-value (,parameter-name=parameter-value)*] )]

For example:

/subsystem=logging/root-logger=ROOT:change-root-log-level(level=WARN)

Tab Completion

Tab-completion is supported for all commands and options, i.e. node-types and node-names, operation names and parameter names.

In operation Tab-completion, required parameters have a name terminated by the '*' character. This helps identify which are the parameters that must be set in order to construct a valid operation. Furthermore, Tab-completion does not propose parameters that are alternatives of parameters already present in the operation.

For example:

/deployment=myapp:add(<TAB>
!  content*  enabled  runtime-name

The parameter content is required and completion advertises it with a '*' character.

/deployment=myapp:add-content(content=[{<TAB>
bytes*  hash*  input-stream-index*  target-path*  url*

bytes, hash, input-stream-index and url are required but also alternatives (only one of them can be set). As soon as one of these parameter has been set, the others are no longer proposed by completion.

/deployment=myapp:add-content(content=[{url=myurl,<TAB>
/deployment=myapp:add-content(content=[{url=myurl,target-path

target-path argument is automatically inlined in the command.

We are also considering adding aliases that are less verbose for the user, and will translate into the corresponding operation requests in the background.

Whitespaces between the separators in the operation request strings are not significant.

Addressing resources

Operation requests might not always have the address part or the parameters. E.g.

:read-resource

which will list all the node types for the current node.

To syntactically disambiguate between the commands and operations, operations require one of the following prefixes:

To execute an operation against the current node, e.g.

cd subsystem=logging
:read-resource(recursive="true")

To execute an operation against a child node of the current node, e.g.

cd subsystem=logging
./root-logger=ROOT:change-root-log-level(level=WARN)

To execute an operation against the root node, e.g.

/:read-resource
Available Operation Types and Descriptions

The operation types can be distinguished between common operations that exist on any node and specific operations that belong to a particular configuration resource (i.e. subsystem). The common operations are:

  • add

  • read-attribute

  • read-children-names

  • read-children-resources

  • read-children-types

  • read-operation-description

  • read-operation-names

  • read-resource

  • read-resource-description

  • remove

  • validate-address

  • write-attribute

For a list of specific operations (e.g. operations that relate to the logging subsystem) you can always query the model itself. For example, to read the operations supported by the logging subsystem resource on a standalone server:

[[standalone@localhost:9990 /] /subsystem=logging:read-operation-names
{
   "outcome" => "success",
   "result" => [
       "add",
       "change-root-log-level",
       "read-attribute",
       "read-children-names",
       "read-children-resources",
       "read-children-types",
       "read-operation-description",
       "read-operation-names",
       "read-resource",
       "read-resource-description",
       "remove-root-logger",
       "root-logger-assign-handler",
       "root-logger-unassign-handler",
       "set-root-logger",
       "validate-address",
       "write-attribute"
   ]
}

As you can see, the logging resource offers four additional operations, namely root-logger-assign-handler, root-logger-unassign-handler, set-root-logger and remove-root-logger.

Further documentation about a resource or operation can be retrieved through the description:

[standalone@localhost:9990 /] /subsystem=logging:read-operation-description(name=change-root-log-level)
{
   "outcome" => "success",
   "result" => {
       "operation-name" => "change-root-log-level",
       "description" => "Change the root logger level.",
       "request-properties" => {"level" => {
           "type" => STRING,
           "description" => "The log level specifying which message levels will be logged by this logger.
                            Message levels lower than this value will be discarded.",
           "required" => true
       }}
   }
}

Full model

To see the full model enter :read-resource(recursive=true).

3.2.7. Command History

Command (and operation request) history is enabled by default. The history is kept both in-memory and in a file on the disk, i.e. it is preserved between command line sessions. The history file name is .jboss-cli-history and is automatically created in the user’s home directory. When the command line interface is launched this file is read and the in-memory history is initialized with its content.

While in the command line session, you can use the arrow keys to go back and forth in the history of commands and operations.

To manipulate the history you can use the history command. If executed without any arguments, it will print all the recorded commands and operations (up to the configured maximum, which defaults to 500) from the in-memory history.

history supports three optional arguments:

  • disable - will disable history expansion (but will not clear the previously recorded history);

  • enabled - will re-enable history expansion (starting from the last recorded command before the history expansion was disabled);

  • clear - will clear the in-memory history (but not the file one).

3.2.8. JSON and DMR output

By default the CLI prints operation results using the DMR textual syntax. There are two ways to make the CLI to display JSON:

  • --output-json option when launching the CLI.

  • <output-json> XML element added to jboss-cli.xml configuration file.

3.2.9. Color output

The CLI outputs results of commands and the prompt in color. To disable this, there are two possible ways to disable it:

  • --no-color-output will disable color output;

  • Change <enabled> to false in jboss-cli.xml.

The <color-output> block is used to configure the colors of the six basic elements that do support it

  • Output messages: error, warning and success;

  • Required configuration options when using the auto-complete functionality;

  • The color of the default prompt;

  • The color of the prompt when using batch and any of the workflow commands, if, for and try.

<color-output>
    <enabled>true</enabled>
    <error-color>red</error-color>
    <warn-color>yellow</warn-color>
    <success-color>default</success-color>
    <required-color>magenta</required-color>
    <workflow-color>green</workflow-color>
    <prompt-color>blue</prompt-color>
</color-output>

There are eight available colors:

Black

Magenta

Blue

Red

Cyan

White

Green

Yellow

There is also the possibility of using the default color, which is the terminal’s configured foreground color.

3.2.10. Paging and searching output

In interactive mode, when the content to display is longer than the terminal height, the content is paged. You can navigate the content by using the following keys and mouse events:

  • space or PAGE_DOWN: scroll the content one page down.

  • '\' or PAGE_UP: scroll the content one page up.

  • ';' or up arrow or mouse wheel up: scroll the content one line up.

  • ENTER or down arrow or mouse wheel down: scroll the content one line down.

  • HOME or 'g': scroll to the top of the content. NB: HOME is only supported for keyboards containing this key.

  • END or 'G': scroll to the bottom of the content. NB: END is only supported for keyboards containing this key.

  • 'q' or 'Q' or ESC: exit the paging.

NB: When the end of the content is reached (using ENTER, space, …​) the paging is automatically exited.

It is possible to search for text when the content is paged. Search is operated with the following keys:

  • '/' to display prompt allowing to type some text. Type return to launch the search.
    You can use up/down arrows to retrieve previously typed text. NB: search history is not persisted when CLI process exits.

  • 'n' to jump to the next match if any. If no search text has been typed, then the last entry from the search history is used.

  • 'N' to jump to the previous match if any. If no search text has been typed, then the last entry from the search history is used.

There are two possible ways to disable the output paging and write the whole output of the commands at once:

  • --no-output-paging command line parameter will disable the output paging;

  • Add <output-paging>false<output-paging> in jboss-cli.xml.

On Windows, searching and navigating backward is only supported starting with Windows 10 and Windows Server 2016.
If the CLI process is sent the signal KILL(9) while it is paging, the terminal will stay in alternate mode. This makes the terminal to behave in an unexpected manner (display and mouse events). In order to restore the terminal state call: tput rmcup.

3.2.11. Batch Processing

The batch mode allows one to group commands and operations and execute them together as an atomic unit. If at least one of the commands or operations fails, all the other successfully executed commands and operations in the batch are rolled back.

Not all of the commands are allowed in the batch. For example, commands like cd, ls, help, etc. are not allowed in the batch since they don’t translate into operation requests. Only the commands that translate into operation requests are allowed in the batch. The batch, actually, is executed as a composite operation request.

The batch mode is entered by executing command batch.

[standalone@localhost:9990 /] batch
[standalone@localhost:9990 / #] /subsystem=datasources/data-source="java\:\/H2DS":enable
[standalone@localhost:9990 / #] /subsystem=messaging-activemq/server=default/jms-queue=newQueue:add

You can execute a batch using the run-batch command:

[standalone@localhost:9990 / #] run-batch
The batch executed successfully.

Exit the batch edit mode without losing your changes:

[standalone@localhost:9990 / #] holdback-batch
[standalone@localhost:9990 /]

Then activate it later on again:

[standalone@localhost:9990 /] batch
Re-activated batch
#1 /subsystem=datasources/data-source=java:/H2DS:\/H2DS:enable

There are several other notable batch commands available as well (tab complete to see the list):

  • clear-batch

  • edit-batch-line (e.g. edit-batch line 3 create-jms-topic name=mytopic)

  • remove-batch-line (e.g. remove-batch-line 3)

  • move-batch-line (e.g. move-batch-line 3 1)

  • discard-batch

3.2.12. Operators

CLI has some operators that are similar to shell operators:

  • > To redirect the output of a command/operation to a file:

:read-resource > my-file.txt
  • >> To redirect the output of a command/operation and append it at the end of a file:

:read-resource >> my-file.txt
  • | To redirect the output of a command/operation to the grep command:

:read-resource | grep undefined

3.3. Default HTTP Interface Security

WildFly is distributed secured by default. The default security mechanism is username / password based making use of HTTP Digest for the authentication process.

The reason for securing the server by default is so that if the management interfaces are accidentally exposed on a public IP address authentication is required to connect - for this reason there is no default user in the distribution.

The user are stored in a properties file called mgmt-users.properties under standalone/configuration and domain/configuration depending on the running mode of the server, these files contain the users username along with a pre-prepared hash of the username along with the name of the realm and the users password.

Although the properties files do not contain the plain text passwords they should still be guarded as the pre-prepared hashes could be used to gain access to any server with the same realm if the same user has used the same password.

To manipulate the files and add users we provide a utility add-user.sh and add-user.bat to add the users and generate the hashes, to add a user you should execute the script and follow the guided process. images/add-user.png
The full details of the add-user utility are described later but for the purpose of accessing the management interface you need to enter the following values: -

  • Type of user - This will be a 'Management User' to selection option a.

  • Realm - This MUST match the realm name used in the configuration so unless you have changed the configuration to use a different realm name leave this set as 'ManagementRealm'.

  • Username - The username of the user you are adding.

  • Password - The users password.

Provided the validation passes you will then be asked to confirm you want to add the user and the properties files will be updated.

For the final question, as this is a user that is going to be accessing the admin console just answer 'n' - this option will be described later for adding slave host controllers that authenticate against a master domain controller but that is a later topic.

After a new user has been added the server should be restarted or the load operation should be executed on the ManagementRealm or ApplicationRealm resource in the elytron subsystem as appropriate.

[standalone@localhost:9990 /] /subsystem=elytron/properties-realm=ManagementRealm:load
{"outcome" => "success"}

3.4. Default Native Interface Security

The native interface shares the same security configuration as the http interface, however we also support a local authentication mechanism which means that the CLI can authenticate against the local WildFly instance without prompting the user for a username and password. This mechanism only works if the user running the CLI has read access to the standalone/tmp/auth folder or domain/tmp/auth folder under the respective WildFly installation - if the local mechanism fails then the CLI will fallback to prompting for a username and password for a user configured as in Default HTTP Interface Security.

Establishing a CLI connection to a remote server will require a username and password by default.

3.5. Command Line Interface

The Command Line Interface (CLI) is a management tool for a managed domain or standalone server. It allows a user to connect to the domain controller or a standalone server and execute management operations available through the de-typed management model.

Details on how to use the CLI can be found in the Command Line Interface page.

3.6. Configuration Files

WildFly stores its configuration in centralized XML configuration files, one per server for standalone servers and, for managed domains, one per host with an additional domain wide policy controlled by the master host. These files are meant to be human-readable and human editable.

The XML configuration files act as a central, authoritative source of configuration. Any configuration changes made via the web interface or the CLI are persisted back to the XML configuration files. If a domain or standalone server is offline, the XML configuration files can be hand edited as well, and any changes will be picked up when the domain or standalone server is next started. However, users are encouraged to use the web interface or the CLI in preference to making offline edits to the configuration files. External changes made to the configuration files while processes are running will not be detected, and may be overwritten.

3.6.1. Standalone Server Configuration File

The XML configuration for a standalone server can be found in the standalone/configuration directory. The default configuration file is standalone/configuration/standalone.xml.

The standalone/configuration directory includes a number of other standard configuration files, e.g. standalone-full.xml, standalone-ha.xml and standalone-full-ha.xml each of which is similar to the default standalone.xml file but includes additional subsystems not present in the default configuration. If you prefer to use one of these files as your server configuration, you can specify it with the [line-through]*c* or -server-config command line argument:

  • bin/standalone.sh -c=standalone-full.xml

  • bin/standalone.sh --server-config=standalone-ha.xml

3.6.2. Managed Domain Configuration Files

In a managed domain, the XML files are found in the domain/configuration directory. There are two types of configuration files – one per host, and then a single domain-wide file managed by the master host, aka the Domain Controller. (For more on the types of processes in a managed domain, see Operating Modes.)

Host Specific Configuration – host.xml

When you start a managed domain process, a Host Controller instance is launched, and it parses its own configuration file to determine its own configuration, how it should integrate with the rest of the domain, any host-specific values for settings in the domain wide configuration (e.g. IP addresses) and what servers it should launch. This information is contained in the host-specific configuration file, the default version of which is domain/configuration/host.xml.

Each host will have its own variant host.xml, with settings appropriate for its role in the domain. WildFly ships with three standard variants:

host-master.xml A configuration that specifies the Host Controller should become the master, aka the Domain Controller. No servers will be started by this Host Controller, which is a recommended setup for a production master.

host-slave.xml

A configuration that specifies the Host Controller should not become master and instead should register with a remote master and be controlled by it. This configuration launches servers, although a user will likely wish to modify how many servers are launched and what server groups they belong to.

host.xml

The default host configuration, tailored for an easy out of the box experience experimenting with a managed domain. This configuration specifies the Host Controller should become the master, aka the Domain Controller, but it also launches a couple of servers.

Which host-specific configuration should be used can be controlled via the _ --host-config_ command line argument:

$ bin/domain.sh --host-config=host-master.xml
Domain Wide Configuration – domain.xml

Once a Host Controller has processed its host-specific configuration, it knows whether it is configured to act as the master Domain Controller. If it is, it must parse the domain wide configuration file, by default located at domain/configuration/domain.xml. This file contains the bulk of the settings that should be applied to the servers in the domain when they are launched – among other things, what subsystems they should run with what settings, what sockets should be used, and what deployments should be deployed.

Which domain-wide configuration should be used can be controlled via the _ --domain-config_ command line argument:

$ bin/domain.sh --domain-config=domain-production.xml

That argument is only relevant for hosts configured to act as the master.

A slave Host Controller does not usually parse the domain wide configuration file. A slave gets the domain wide configuration from the remote master Domain Controller when it registers with it. A slave also will not persist changes to a domain.xml file if one is present on the filesystem. For that reason it is recommended that no domain.xml be kept on the filesystem of hosts that will only run as slaves.

A slave can be configured to keep a locally persisted copy of the domain wide configuration and then use it on boot (in case the master is not available.) See --backup and --cached-dc under Command line parameters.

4. Interfaces and ports

4.1. Interface declarations

WildFly uses named interface references throughout the configuration. A network interface is declared by specifying a logical name and a selection criteria for the physical interface:

[standalone@localhost:9990 /] :read-children-names(child-type=interface)
{
   "outcome" => "success",
   "result" => [
       "management",
       "public"
   ]
}

This means the server in question declares two interfaces: One is referred to as " management"; the other one " public". The " management" interface is used for all components and services that are required by the management layer (i.e. the HTTP Management Endpoint). The " public" interface binding is used for any application related network communication (i.e. Web, Messaging, etc). There is nothing special about these names; interfaces can be declared with any name. Other sections of the configuration can then reference those interfaces by their logical name, rather than having to include the full details of the interface (which, on servers in a management domain, may vary on different machines).

The domain.xml, host.xml and standalone.xml configuration files all include a section where interfaces can be declared. If we take a look at the XML declaration it reveals the selection criteria. The criteria is one of two types: either a single element indicating that the interface should be bound to a wildcard address, or a set of one or more characteristics that an interface or address must have in order to be a valid match. The selection criteria in this example are specific IP addresses for each interface:

<interfaces>
  <interface name="management">
   <inet-address value="127.0.0.1"/>
  </interface>
  <interface name="public">
   <inet-address value="127.0.0.1"/>
  </interface>
</interfaces>

Some other examples:

<interface name="global">
   <!-- Use the wildcard address -->
   <any-address/>
</interface>
 
<interface name="external">
   <nic name="eth0"/>
</interface>
 
<interface name="default">
   <!-- Match any interface/address on the right subnet if it's
        up, supports multicast and isn't point-to-point -->
   <subnet-match value="192.168.0.0/16"/>
   <up/>
   <multicast/>
   <not>
      <point-to-point/>
   </not>
</interface>
An interface configuration element is used to provide a single InetAddress to parts of the server that reference that interface. If the selection criteria specified for the interface element results in more than one address meeting the criteria, then a warning will be logged and one just one address will be selected and used. Preference will be given to network interfaces that are up, are non-loopback and are not point-to-point.

4.1.1. The -b command line argument

WildFly supports using the -b command line argument to specify the address to assign to interfaces. See Controlling the Bind Address with -b for further details.

4.2. Socket Binding Groups

The socket configuration in WildFly works similarly to the interfaces declarations. Sockets are declared using a logical name, by which they will be referenced throughout the configuration. Socket declarations are grouped under a certain name. This allows you to easily reference a particular socket binding group when configuring server groups in a managed domain. Socket binding groups reference an interface by its logical name:

<socket-binding-group name="standard-sockets" default-interface="public">
  <socket-binding name="management-http" interface="management" port="${jboss.management.http.port:9990}"/>
  <socket-binding name="management-https" interface="management" port="${jboss.management.https.port:9993}"/>
  <socket-binding name="ajp" port="${jboss.ajp.port:8009}"/>
  <socket-binding name="http" port="${jboss.http.port:8080}"/>
  <socket-binding name="https" port="${jboss.https.port:8443}"/>
  <socket-binding name="txn-recovery-environment" port="4712"/>
  <socket-binding name="txn-status-manager" port="4713"/>
</socket-binding-group>

A socket binding includes the following information:

  • name — logical name of the socket configuration that should be used elsewhere in the configuration

  • port — base port to which a socket based on this configuration should be bound. (Note that servers can be configured to override this base value by applying an increment or decrement to all port values.)

  • interface (optional) — logical name (see "Interfaces declarations" above) of the interface to which a socket based on this configuration should be bound. If not defined, the value of the "default-interface" attribute from the enclosing socket binding group will be used.

  • multicast-address (optional) — if the socket will be used for multicast, the multicast address to use

  • multicast-port (optional) — if the socket will be used for multicast, the multicast port to use

  • fixed-port (optional, defaults to false) — if true, declares that the value of port should always be used for the socket and should not be overridden by applying an increment or decrement

4.3. IPv4 versus IPv6

WildFly supports the use of both IPv4 and IPv6 addresses. By default, WildFly is configured for use in an IPv4 network and so if you are running in an IPv4 network, no changes are required. If you need to run in an IPv6 network, the changes required are minimal and involve changing the JVM stack and address preferences, and adjusting any interface IP address values specified in the configuration (standalone.xml or domain.xml).

4.3.1. Stack and address preference

The system properties java.net.preferIPv4Stack and java.net.preferIPv6Addresses are used to configure the JVM for use with IPv4 or IPv6 addresses. With WildFly, in order to run using IPv4 addresses, you need to specify java.net.preferIPv4Stack=true; in order to run with IPv6 addresses, you need to specify java.net.preferIPv4Stack=false (the JVM default) and java.net.preferIPv6Addresses=true. The latter ensures that any hostname to IP address conversions always return IPv6 address variants.

These system properties are conveniently set by the JAVA_OPTS environment variable, defined in the standalone.conf (or domain.conf) file. For example, to change the IP stack preference from its default of IPv4 to IPv6, edit the standalone.conf (or domain.conf) file and change its default IPv4 setting:

if [ "x$JAVA_OPTS" = "x" ]; then
   JAVA_OPTS=" ... -Djava.net.preferIPv4Stack=true ..."
...

to an IPv6 suitable setting:

if [ "x$JAVA_OPTS" = "x" ]; then
   JAVA_OPTS=" ... -Djava.net.preferIPv4Stack=false -Djava.net.preferIPv6Addresses=true ..."
...

4.3.2. IP address literals

To change the IP address literals referenced in standalone.xml (or domain.xml), first visit the interface declarations and ensure that valid IPv6 addresses are being used as interface values. For example, to change the default configuration in which the loopback interface is used as the primary interface, change from the IPv4 loopback address:

<interfaces>
  <interface name="management">
    <inet-address value="${jboss.bind.address.management:127.0.0.1}"/>
  </interface>
  <interface name="public">
    <inet-address value="${jboss.bind.address:127.0.0.1}"/>
  </interface>
</interfaces>

to the IPv6 loopback address:

<interfaces>
  <interface name="management">
    <inet-address value="${jboss.bind.address.management:[::1]}"/>
  </interface>
  <interface name="public">
    <inet-address value="${jboss.bind.address:[::1]}"/>
  </interface>
</interfaces>

Note that when embedding IPv6 address literals in the substitution expression, square brackets surrounding the IP address literal are used to avoid ambiguity. This follows the convention for the use of IPv6 literals in URLs.

Over and above making such changes for the interface definitions, you should also check the rest of your configuration file and adjust IP address literals from IPv4 to IPv6 as required.

5. Administrative security

5.1. add-user utility

For use with the default configuration we supply a utility add-user which can be used to manage the properties files for the default realms used to store the users and their roles.

The add-user utility can be used to manage both the users in the ManagementRealm and the users in the ApplicationRealm, changes made apply to the properties file used both for domain mode and standalone mode.

After you have installed your application server and decided if you are going to run in standalone mode or domain mode you can delete the parent folder for the mode you are not using, the add-user utility will then only be managing the properties file for the mode in use.

The add-user utility is a command line utility however it can be run in both interactive and non-interactive mode. Depending on your platform the script to run the add-user utility is either add-user.sh or add-user.bat which can be found in \{ jboss.home}/bin.

This guide now contains a couple of examples of this utility in use to accomplish the most common tasks.

5.1.1. Adding a User

Adding users to the properties files is the primary purpose of this utility. Usernames can only contain the following characters in any number and in any order:

  • Alphanumeric characters (a-z, A-Z, 0-9)

  • Dashes (-), periods (.), commas (,), at (@)

  • Escaped backslash ( \\ )

  • Escaped equals (\=)

A Management User
The default name of the realm for management users is ManagementRealm, when the utility prompts for the realm name just accept the default unless you have switched to a different realm.
Interactive Mode

images/add-mgmt-user-interactive.png

Here we have added a new Management User called adminUser, as you can see some of the questions offer default responses so you can just press enter without repeating the default value.

For now just answer n or no to the final question, adding users to be used by processes is described in more detail in the domain management chapter.

Non-Interactive Mode

To add a user in non-interactive mode the command ./add-user.sh {username} {password} can be used.

images/add-mgmt-user-non-interactive.png

If you add users using this approach there is a risk that any other user that can view the list of running process may see the arguments including the password of the user being added, there is also the risk that the username / password combination will be cached in the history file of the shell you are currently using.
An Application User

When adding application users in addition to adding the user with their pre-hashed password it is also now possible to define the roles of the user.

Interactive Mode

images/add-app-user-interactive.png

Here a new user called appUser has been added, in this case a comma separated list of roles has also been specified.

As with adding a management user just answer n or no to the final question until you know you are adding a user that will be establishing a connection from one server to another.

Non-Interactive Mode

To add an application user non-interactively use the command ./add-user.sh -a {username} {password}.

images/add-app-user-non-interactive.png

Non-interactive mode does not support defining a list of users, to associate a user with a set of roles you will need to manually edit the application-roles.properties file by hand.

5.1.2. Updating a User

Within the add-user utility it is also possible to update existing users, in interactive mode you will be prompted to confirm if this is your intention.

A Management User
Non-Interactive Mode

In non-interactive mode if a user already exists the update is automatic with no confirmation prompt.

An Application User
Interactive Mode

images/update-app-user-interactive.png

On updating a user with roles you will need to re-enter the list of roles assigned to the user.
Non-Interactive Mode

In non-interactive mode if a user already exists the update is automatic with no confirmation prompt.

5.1.3. Community Contributions

There are still a few features to add to the add-user utility such as removing users or adding application users with roles in non-interactive mode, if you are interested in contributing to WildFly development the add-user utility is a good place to start as it is a stand alone utility, however it is a part of the AS build so you can become familiar with the AS development processes without needing to delve straight into the internals of the application server.

5.2. Authorizing management actions with Role Based Access Control

WildFly introduces a Role Based Access Control scheme that allows different administrative users to have different sets of permissions to read and update parts of the management tree. This replaces the simple permission scheme used in JBoss AS 7, where anyone who could successfully authenticate to the management security realm would have all permissions.

5.2.1. Access Control Providers

WildFly ships with two access control "providers", the "simple" provider, and the "rbac" provider. The "simple" provider is the default, and provides a permission scheme equivalent to the JBoss AS 7 behavior where any authenticated administrator has all permissions. The "rbac" provider gives the finer grained permission scheme that is the focus of this section.

The access control configuration is included in the management section of a standalone server’s standalone.xml, or in a new "management" section in a managed domain’s domain.xml. The access control policy is centrally configured in a managed domain.

<management>
    . . .
    <access-control provider="simple">
        <role-mapping>
            <role name="SuperUser">
                <include>
                    <user name="$local"/>
                </include>
            </role>
        </role-mapping>
    </access-control>
</management>

As you can see, the provider is set to "simple" by default. With the "simple" provider, the nested "role-mapping" section is not actually relevant. It’s there to help ensure that if the provider attribute is switched to "rbac" there will be at least one user mapped to a role that can continue to administer the system. This default mapping assigns the "$local" user name to the RBAC role that provides all permissions, the "SuperUser" role. The "$local" user name is the name an administrator will be assigned if he or she uses the CLI on the same system as the WildFly instance and the "local" authentication scheme is enabled.

5.2.2. RBAC provider overview

The access control scheme implemented by the "rbac" provider is based on seven standard roles. A role is a named set of permissions to perform one of the actions: addressing (i.e. looking up) a management resource, reading it, or modifying it. The different roles have constraints applied to their permissions that are used to determine whether the permission is granted.

RBAC roles

The seven standard roles are divided into two broad categories, based on whether the role can deal with items that are considered to be "security sensitive". Resources, attributes and operations that may affect administrative security (e.g. security realm resources and attributes that contain passwords) are "security sensitive".

Four roles are not given permissions for "security sensitive" items:

  • Monitor – a read-only role. Cannot modify any resource.

  • Operator – Monitor permissions, plus can modify runtime state, but cannot modify anything that ends up in the persistent configuration. Could, for example, restart a server.

  • Maintainer – Operator permissions, plus can modify the persistent configuration.

  • Deployer – like a Maintainer, but with permission to modify persistent configuration constrained to resources that are considered to be "application resources". A deployment is an application resource. The messaging server is not. Items like datasources and Jakarta Messaging destinations are not considered to be application resources by default, but this is configurable.

Three roles are granted permissions for security sensitive items:

  • SuperUser – has all permissions. Equivalent to a JBoss AS 7 administrator.

  • Administrator – has all permissions except cannot read or write resources related to the administrative audit logging system.

  • Auditor – can read anything. Can only modify the resources related to the administrative audit logging system.

The Auditor and Administrator roles are meant for organizations that want a separation of responsibilities between those who audit normal administrative actions and those who perform them, with those who perform most actions (Administrator role) not being able to read or alter the auditing configuration.

Access control constraints

The following factors are used to determine whether a given role is granted a permission:

  • What the requested action is (address, read, write)

  • Whether the resource, attribute or operation affects the persistent configuration

  • Whether the resource, attribute or operation is related to the administrative audit logging function

  • Whether the resource, attribute or operation is configured as security sensitive

  • Whether an attribute or operation parameter value has a security vault expression

  • Whether a resource is considered to be associated with applications, as opposed to being part of a general container configuration

The first three of these factors are non-configurable; the latter three allow some customization. See " Configuring constraints" for details.

Addressing a resource

As mentioned above, permissions are granted to perform one of three actions, addressing a resource, reading it, and modifying. The latter two actions are fairly self-explanatory. But what is meant by "addressing" a resource?

"Addressing" a resource refers to taking an action that allows the user to determine whether a resource at a given address actually exists. For example, the "read-children-names" operation lets a user determine valid addresses. Trying to read a resource and getting a "Permission denied" error also gives the user a clue that there actually is a resource at the requested address.

Some resources may include sensitive information as part of their address. For example, security realm resources include the realm name as the last element in the address. That realm name is potentially security sensitive; for example it is part of the data used when creating a hash of a user password. Because some addresses may contain security sensitive data, a user needs permission to even "address" a resource. If a user attempts to address a resource and does not have permission, they will not receive a "permission denied" type error. Rather, the system will respond as if the resource does not even exist, e.g. excluding the resource from the result of the "read-children-names" operation or responding with a "No such resource" error instead of "Permission denied" if the user is attempting to read or write the resource.

Another term for "addressing" a resource is "looking up" the resource.

5.2.3. Switching to the "rbac" provider

Use the CLI to switch the access-control provider.

Before changing the provider to "rbac", be sure your configuration has a user who will be mapped to one of the RBAC roles, preferably with at least one in the Administrator or SuperUser role. Otherwise your installation will not be manageable except by shutting it down and editing the xml configuration. If you have started with one of the standard xml configurations shipped with WildFly, the "$local" user will be mapped to the "SuperUser" role and the "local" authentication scheme will be enabled. This will allow a user running the CLI on the same system as the WildFly process to have full administrative permissions. Remote CLI users and web-based admin console users will have no permissions.

We recommend mapping at least one user besides "$local" before switching the provider to "rbac". You can do all of the configuration associated with the "rbac" provider even when the provider is set to "simple"

The management resources related to access control are located in the core-service=management/access=authorization portion of the management resource tree. Update the provider attribute to change between the "simple" and "rbac" providers. Any update requires a reload or restart to take effect.

[standalone@localhost:9990 /] cd core-service=management/access=authorization
[standalone@localhost:9990 access=authorization] :write-attribute(name=provider,value=rbac)
{
    "outcome" => "success",
    "response-headers" => {
        "operation-requires-reload" => true,
        "process-state" => "reload-required"
    }
}
[standalone@localhost:9990 access=authorization] reload

In a managed domain, the access control configuration is part of the domain wide configuration, so the resource address is the same as above, but the CLI is connected to the master Domain Controller:

[domain@localhost:9990 /] cd core-service=management/access=authorization
[domain@localhost:9990 access=authorization] :write-attribute(name=provider,value=rbac)
{
    "outcome" => "success",
    "response-headers" => {
        "operation-requires-reload" => true,
        "process-state" => "reload-required"
    },
    "result" => undefined,
    "server-groups" => {"main-server-group" => {"host" => {"master" => {
        "server-one" => {"response" => {
            "outcome" => "success",
            "response-headers" => {
                "operation-requires-reload" => true,
                "process-state" => "reload-required"
            }
        }},
        "server-two" => {"response" => {
            "outcome" => "success",
            "response-headers" => {
                "operation-requires-reload" => true,
                "process-state" => "reload-required"
            }
        }}
    }}}}
}
[domain@localhost:9990 access=authorization] reload --host=master

As with a standalone server, a reload or restart is required for the change to take effect. In this case, all hosts and servers in the domain will need to be reloaded or restarted, starting with the master Domain Controller, so be sure to plan well before making this change.

5.2.4. Mapping users and groups to roles

Once the "rbac" access control provider is enabled, only users who are mapped to one of the available roles will have any administrative permissions at all. So, to make RBAC useful, a mapping between individual users or groups of users and the available roles must be performed.

Mapping individual users

The easiest way to map individual users to roles is to use the web-based admin console.

Navigate to the "Administration" tab and the "Users" subtab. From there individual user mappings can be added, removed, or edited.

images/usermapping.png

The CLI can also be used to map individuals users to roles.

First, if one does not exist, create the parent resource for all mappings for a role. Here we create the resource for the Administrator role.

[domain@localhost:9990 /] /core-service=management/access=authorization/role-mapping=Administrator:add
{
    "outcome" => "success",
    "result" => undefined,
    "server-groups" => {"main-server-group" => {"host" => {"master" => {
        "server-one" => {"response" => {"outcome" => "success"}},
        "server-two" => {"response" => {"outcome" => "success"}}
    }}}}
}

Once this is done, map a user to the role:

[domain@localhost:9990 /] /core-service=management/access=authorization/role-mapping=Administrator/include=user-jsmith:add(name=jsmith,type=USER)
{
    "outcome" => "success",
    "result" => undefined,
    "server-groups" => {"main-server-group" => {"host" => {"master" => {
        "server-one" => {"response" => {"outcome" => "success"}},
        "server-two" => {"response" => {"outcome" => "success"}}
    }}}}
}

Now if user jsmith authenticates to any security domain associated with the management interface they are using, he will be mapped to the Administrator role.

User groups

A "group" is an arbitrary collection of users that may exist in the end user environment. They can be named whatever the end user organization wants and can contain whatever users the end user organization wants. Some of the authentication store types supported by WildFly security realms include the ability to access information about what groups a user is a member of and associate this information with the Subject produced when the user is authenticated. This is currently supported for the following authentication store types:

  • properties file (via the <realm_name>-groups.properties file)

  • LDAP (via directory-server-specific configuration)

Groups are convenient when it comes to associating a user with a role, since entire groups can be associated with a role in a single mapping.

Mapping groups to roles

The easiest way to map groups to roles is to use the web-based admin console.

Navigate to the "Administration" tab and the "Groups" subtab. From there group mappings can be added, removed, or edited.

images/groupmapping.png

The CLI can also be used to map groups to roles. The only difference to individual user mapping is the value of the type attribute should be GROUP instead of USER.

[domain@localhost:9990 /] /core-service=management/access=authorization/role-mapping=Administrator/include=group-SeniorAdmins:add(name=SeniorAdmins,type=GROUP)
{
    "outcome" => "success",
    "result" => undefined,
    "server-groups" => {"main-server-group" => {"host" => {"master" => {
        "server-one" => {"response" => {"outcome" => "success"}},
        "server-two" => {"response" => {"outcome" => "success"}}
    }}}}
}
Including all authenticated users in a role

It’s possible to specify that all authenticated users should be mapped to a particular role. This could be used, for example, to ensure that anyone who can authenticate can at least have Monitor privileges.

A user who can authenticate to the management security realm but who does not map to a role will not be able to perform any administrative functions, not even reads.

In the web based admin console, navigate to the "Administration" tab, "Roles" subtab, highlight the relevant role, click the "Edit" button and click on the "Include All" checkbox:

images/includeall.png

The same change can be made using the CLI:

[domain@localhost:9990 /] /core-service=management/access=authorization/role-mapping=Monitor:write-attribute(name=include-all,value=true)
{
    "outcome" => "success",
    "result" => undefined,
    "server-groups" => {"main-server-group" => {"host" => {"master" => {
        "server-one" => {"response" => {"outcome" => "success"}},
        "server-two" => {"response" => {"outcome" => "success"}}
    }}}}
}
Excluding users and groups

It is also possible to explicitly exclude certain users and groups from a role. Exclusions take precedence over inclusions, including cases where the include-all attribute is set to true for a role.

In the admin console, excludes are done in the same screens as includes. In the add dialog, simply change the "Type" pulldown to "Exclude".

images/excludemapping.png

In the CLI, excludes are identical to includes, except the resource address has exclude instead of include as the key for the last address element:

[domain@localhost:9990 /] /core-service=management/access=authorization/role-mapping=Monitor/exclude=group-Temps:add(name=Temps,type=GROUP)
{
    "outcome" => "success",
    "result" => undefined,
    "server-groups" => {"main-server-group" => {"host" => {"master" => {
        "server-one" => {"response" => {"outcome" => "success"}},
        "server-two" => {"response" => {"outcome" => "success"}}
    }}}}
}
Users who map to multiple roles

It is possible that a given user will be mapped to more than one role. When this occurs, by default the user will be granted the union of the permissions of the two roles. This behavior can be changed on a global basis to instead respond to the user request with an error if this situation is detected:

[standalone@localhost:9990 /] cd core-service=management/access=authorization
[standalone@localhost:9990 access=authorization] :write-attribute(name=permission-combination-policy,value=rejecting)
{"outcome" => "success"}

Note that no reload is required; the change takes immediate effect.

To restore the default behavior, set the value to "permissive":

[standalone@localhost:9990 /] cd core-service=management/access=authorization
[standalone@localhost:9990 access=authorization] :write-attribute(name=permission-combination-policy,value=permissive)
{"outcome" => "success"}

5.2.5. Adding custom roles in a managed domain

A managed domain may involve a variety of servers running different configurations and hosting different applications. In such an environment, it is likely that there will be different teams of administrators responsible for different parts of the domain. To allow organizations to grant permissions to only parts of a domain, WildFly’s RBAC scheme allows for the creation of custom "scoped roles". Scoped roles are based on the seven standard roles, but with permissions limited to a portion of the domain – either to a set of server groups or to a set of hosts.

Server group scoped roles

The privileges for a server-group scoped role are constrained to resources associated with one or more server groups. Server groups are often associated with a particular application or set of applications; organizations that have separate teams responsible for different applications may find server-group scoped roles useful.

A server-group scoped role is equivalent to the default role upon which it is based, but with privileges constrained to target resources in the resource trees rooted in the server group resources. The server-group scoped role can be configured to include privileges for the following resources trees logically related to the server group:

  • Profile

  • Socket Binding Group

  • Deployment

  • Deployment override

  • Server group

  • Server config

  • Server

Resources in the profile, socket binding group, server config and server portions of the tree that are not logically related to a server group associated with the server-group scoped role will not be addressable by a user in that role. So, in a domain with server groups "a" and "b", a user in a server-group scoped role that grants access to "a" will not be able to address /server-group=b. The system will treat that resource as non-existent for that user.

In addition to these privileges, users in a server-group scoped role will have non-sensitive read privileges (equivalent to the Monitor role) for resources other than those listed above.

The easiest way to create a server-group scoped role is to use the admin console. But you can also use the CLI to create a server-group scoped role.

[domain@localhost:9990 /] /core-service=management/access=authorization/server-group-scoped-role=MainGroupAdmins:add(base-role=Administrator,server-groups=[main-server-group])
{
    "outcome" => "success",
    "result" => undefined,
    "server-groups" => {"main-server-group" => {"host" => {"master" => {
        "server-one" => {"response" => {"outcome" => "success"}},
        "server-two" => {"response" => {"outcome" => "success"}}
    }}}}
}

Once the role is created, users or groups can be mapped to it the same as with the seven standard roles.

Host scoped roles

The privileges for a host-scoped role are constrained to resources associated with one or more hosts. A user with a host-scoped role cannot modify the domain wide configuration. Organizations may use host-scoped roles to give administrators relatively broad administrative rights for a host without granting such rights across the managed domain.

A host-scoped role is equivalent to the default role upon which it is based, but with privileges constrained to target resources in the resource trees rooted in the host resources for one or more specified hosts.

In addition to these privileges, users in a host-scoped role will have non-sensitive read privileges (equivalent to the Monitor role) for domain wide resources (i.e. those not in the /host=* section of the tree.)

Resources in the /host=* portion of the tree that are unrelated to the hosts specified for the Host Scoped Role will not be visible to users in that host-scoped role. So, in a domain with hosts "a" and "b", a user in a host-scoped role that grants access to "a" will not be able to address /host=b. The system will treat that resource as non-existent for that user.

The easiest way to create a host-scoped role is to use the admin console. But you can also use the CLI to create a host scoped role.

[domain@localhost:9990 /] /core-service=management/access=authorization/host-scoped-role=MasterOperators:add(base-role=Operator,hosts=[master]}
{
    "outcome" => "success",
    "result" => undefined,
    "server-groups" => {"main-server-group" => {"host" => {"master" => {
        "server-one" => {"response" => {"outcome" => "success"}},
        "server-two" => {"response" => {"outcome" => "success"}}
    }}}}
}

Once the role is created, users or groups can be mapped to it the same as with the seven standard roles.

Using the admin console to create scoped roles

Both server-group and host scoped roles can be added, removed or edited via the admin console. Select "Scoped Roles" from the "Administration" tab, "Roles" subtab:

images/scopedroles.png

When adding a new scoped role, use the dialogue’s "Type" pull down to choose between a host scoped role and a server-group scoped role. Then place the names of the relevant hosts or server groups in the "Scope" text are.

images/addscopedrole.png

5.2.6. Configuring constraints

The following factors are used to determine whether a given role is granted a permission:

  • What the requested action is (address, read, write)

  • Whether the resource, attribute or operation affects the persistent configuration

  • Whether the resource, attribute or operation is related to the administrative audit logging function

  • Whether the resource, attribute or operation is configured as security sensitive

  • Whether an attribute or operation parameter value has a security vault expression or an encrypted expression.

  • Whether a resource is considered to be associated with applications, as opposed to being part of a general container configuration

The first three of these factors are non-configurable; the latter three allow some customization.

Configuring sensitivity

"Sensitivity" constraints are about restricting access to security-sensitive data. Different organizations may have different opinions about what is security sensitive, so WildFly provides configuration options to allow users to tailor these constraints.

Sensitive resources, attributes and operations

The developers of the WildFly core and of any subsystem may annotate resources, attributes or operations with a "sensitivity classification". Classifications are either provided by the core and may be applicable anywhere in the management model, or they are scoped to a particular subsystem. For each classification, there will be a setting declaring whether by default the addressing, read and write actions are considered to be sensitive. If an action is sensitive, only users in the roles able to deal with sensitive data (Administrator, Auditor, SuperUser) will have permissions.

Using the CLI, administrators can see the settings for a classification. For example, there is a core classification called "socket-config" that is applied to elements throughout the model that relate to configuring sockets:

[domain@localhost:9990 /] cd core-service=management/access=authorization/constraint=sensitivity-classification/type=core/classification=socket-config
[domain@localhost:9990 classification=socket-config] ls -l
ATTRIBUTE                       VALUE     TYPE
configured-requires-addressable undefined BOOLEAN
configured-requires-read        undefined BOOLEAN
configured-requires-write       undefined BOOLEAN
default-requires-addressable    false     BOOLEAN
default-requires-read           false     BOOLEAN
default-requires-write          true      BOOLEAN
 
CHILD      MIN-OCCURS MAX-OCCURS
applies-to n/a        n/a

The various default-requires-…​ attributes indicate whether a user must be in a role that allows security sensitive actions in order to perform the action. In the socket-config example above, default-requires-write is true, while the others are false. So, by default modifying a setting involving socket configuration is considered sensitive, while addressing those resources or doing reads is not sensitive.

The default-requires-…​ attributes are read-only. The configured-requires-…​ attributes however can be modified to override the default settings with ones appropriate for your organization. For example, if your organization doesn’t regard modifying socket configuration settings to be security sensitive, you can change that setting:

[domain@localhost:9990 classification=socket-config] :write-attribute(name=configured-requires-write,value=false)
{
    "outcome" => "success",
    "result" => undefined,
    "server-groups" => {"main-server-group" => {"host" => {"master" => {
        "server-one" => {"response" => {"outcome" => "success"}},
        "server-two" => {"response" => {"outcome" => "success"}}
    }}}}
}

Administrators can also read the management model to see to which resources, attributes and operations a particular sensitivity classification applies:

[domain@localhost:9990 classification=socket-config] :read-children-resources(child-type=applies-to)
{
    "outcome" => "success",
    "result" => {
        "/host=master" => {
            "address" => "/host=master",
            "attributes" => [],
            "entire-resource" => false,
            "operations" => ["resolve-internet-address"]
        },
        "/host=master/core-service=host-environment" => {
            "address" => "/host=master/core-service=host-environment",
            "attributes" => [
                "host-controller-port",
                "host-controller-address",
                "process-controller-port",
                "process-controller-address"
            ],
            "entire-resource" => false,
            "operations" => []
        },
        "/host=master/core-service=management/management-interface=http-interface" => {
            "address" => "/host=master/core-service=management/management-interface=http-interface",
            "attributes" => [
                "port",
                "secure-interface",
                "secure-port",
                "interface"
            ],
            "entire-resource" => false,
            "operations" => []
        },
        "/host=master/core-service=management/management-interface=native-interface" => {
            "address" => "/host=master/core-service=management/management-interface=native-interface",
            "attributes" => [
                "port",
                "interface"
            ],
            "entire-resource" => false,
            "operations" => []
        },
        "/host=master/interface=*" => {
            "address" => "/host=master/interface=*",
            "attributes" => [],
            "entire-resource" => true,
            "operations" => ["resolve-internet-address"]
        },
        "/host=master/server-config=*/interface=*" => {
            "address" => "/host=master/server-config=*/interface=*",
            "attributes" => [],
            "entire-resource" => true,
            "operations" => []
        },
        "/interface=*" => {
            "address" => "/interface=*",
            "attributes" => [],
            "entire-resource" => true,
            "operations" => []
        },
        "/profile=*/subsystem=messaging/hornetq-server=*/broadcast-group=*" => {
            "address" => "/profile=*/subsystem=messaging/hornetq-server=*/broadcast-group=*",
            "attributes" => [
                "group-address",
                "group-port",
                "local-bind-address",
                "local-bind-port"
            ],
            "entire-resource" => false,
            "operations" => []
        },
        "/profile=*/subsystem=messaging/hornetq-server=*/discovery-group=*" => {
            "address" => "/profile=*/subsystem=messaging/hornetq-server=*/discovery-group=*",
            "attributes" => [
                "group-address",
                "group-port",
                "local-bind-address"
            ],
            "entire-resource" => false,
            "operations" => []
        },
        "/profile=*/subsystem=transactions" => {
            "address" => "/profile=*/subsystem=transactions",
            "attributes" => ["process-id-socket-max-ports"],
            "entire-resource" => false,
            "operations" => []
        },
        "/server-group=*" => {
            "address" => "/server-group=*",
            "attributes" => ["socket-binding-port-offset"],
            "entire-resource" => false,
            "operations" => []
        },
        "/socket-binding-group=*" => {
            "address" => "/socket-binding-group=*",
            "attributes" => [],
            "entire-resource" => true,
            "operations" => []
        }
    }
}

There will be a separate child for each address to which the classification applies. The entire-resource attribute will be true if the classification applies to the entire resource. Otherwise, the attributes and operations attributes will include the names of attributes or operations to which the classification applies.

Classifications with broad use

Several of the core sensitivity classifications are commonly used across the management model and deserve special mention.

Name Description

credential

An attribute whose value is some sort of credential, e.g. a password or a username. By default sensitive for both reads and writes

security-domain-ref

An attribute whose value is the name of a security domain. By default sensitive for both reads and writes

security-realm-ref

An attribute whose value is the name of a security realm. By default sensitive for both reads and writes

socket-binding-ref

An attribute whose value is the name of a socket binding. By default not sensitive for any action

socket-config

A resource, attribute or operation that somehow relates to configuring a socket. By default sensitive for writes

Values with security vault expressions

By default any attribute or operation parameter whose value includes a security vault expression will be treated as sensitive, even if no sensitivity classification applies or the classification does not treat the action as sensitive.

This setting can be globally changed via the CLI. There is a resource for this configuration:

[domain@localhost:9990 /] cd core-service=management/access=authorization/constraint=vault-expression
[domain@localhost:9990 constraint=vault-expression] ls -l
ATTRIBUTE                 VALUE     TYPE
configured-requires-read  undefined BOOLEAN
configured-requires-write undefined BOOLEAN
default-requires-read     true      BOOLEAN
default-requires-write    true      BOOLEAN

The various default-requires-…​ attributes indicate whether a user must be in a role that allows security sensitive actions in order to perform the action. So, by default both reading and writing attributes whose values include vault expressions requires a user to be in one of the roles with sensitive data permissions.

The default-requires-…​ attributes are read-only. The configured-requires-…​ attributes however can be modified to override the default settings with settings appropriate for your organization. For example, if your organization doesn’t regard reading vault expressions to be security sensitive, you can change that setting:

[domain@localhost:9990 constraint=vault-expression] :write-attribute(name=configured-requires-read,value=false)
{
    "outcome" => "success",
    "result" => undefined,
    "server-groups" => {"main-server-group" => {"host" => {"master" => {
        "server-one" => {"response" => {"outcome" => "success"}},
        "server-two" => {"response" => {"outcome" => "success"}}
    }}}}
}
This vault-expression constraint overlaps somewhat with the core "credential" sensitivity classification in that the most typical uses of a vault expression are in attributes that contain a user name or password, and those will typically be annotated with the "credential" sensitivity classification. So, if you change the settings for the "credential" sensitivity classification you may also need to make a corresponding change to the vault-expression constraint settings, or your change will not have full effect.

Be aware though, that vault expressions can be used in any attribute that supports expressions, not just in credential-type attributes. So it is important to be familiar with where and how your organization uses vault expressions before changing these settings.

Configuring "Deployer" role access

The standard Deployer role has its write permissions limited to resources that are considered to be "application resources"; i.e. conceptually part of an application and not part of the general server configuration. By default, only deployment resources are considered to be application resources. However, different organizations may have different opinions on what qualifies as an application resource, so for resource types that subsystems authors consider potentially to be application resources, WildFly provides a configuration option to declare them as such. Such resources will be annotated with an "application classification".

For example, the mail subsystem provides such a classification:

[domain@localhost:9990 /] cd /core-service=management/access=authorization/constraint=application-classification/type=mail/classification=mail-session
[domain@localhost:9990 classification=mail-session] ls -l
ATTRIBUTE              VALUE     TYPE
configured-application undefined BOOLEAN
default-application    false     BOOLEAN
 
CHILD      MIN-OCCURS MAX-OCCURS
applies-to n/a        n/a

Use read-resource or read-children-resources to see what resources have this classification applied:

[domain@localhost:9990 classification=mail-session] :read-children-resources(child-type=applies-to)
{
    "outcome" => "success",
    "result" => {"/profile=*/subsystem=mail/mail-session=*" => {
        "address" => "/profile=*/subsystem=mail/mail-session=*",
        "attributes" => [],
        "entire-resource" => true,
        "operations" => []
    }}
}

This indicates that this classification, intuitively enough, only applies to mail subsystem mail-session resources.

To make resources with this classification writeable by users in the Deployer role, set the configured-application attribute to true.

[domain@localhost:9990 classification=mail-session] :write-attribute(name=configured-application,value=true)
{
    "outcome" => "success",
    "result" => undefined,
    "server-groups" => {"main-server-group" => {"host" => {"master" => {
        "server-one" => {"response" => {"outcome" => "success"}},
        "server-two" => {"response" => {"outcome" => "success"}}
    }}}}
}
Application classifications shipped with WildFly

The subsystems shipped with the full WildFly distribution include the following application classifications:

Subsystem Classification

datasources

data-source

datasources

jdbc-driver

datasources

xa-data-source

logging

logger

logging

logging-profile

mail

mail-session

messaging

jms-queue

messaging

jms-topic

messaging

queue

messaging

security-setting

naming

binding

resource-adapters

resource-adapter

security

security-domain

In each case the classification applies to the resources you would expect, given its name.

5.2.7. RBAC effect on administrator user experience

The RBAC scheme will result in reduced permissions for administrators who do not map to the SuperUser role, so this will of course have some impact on their experience when using administrative tools like the admin console and the CLI.

Admin console

The admin console takes great pains to provide a good user experience even when the user has reduced permissions. Resources the user is not permitted to see will simply not be shown, or if appropriate will be replaced in the UI with an indication that the user is not authorized. Interaction units like "Add" and "Remove" buttons and "Edit" links will be suppressed if the user has no write permissions.

CLI

The CLI is a much more unconstrained tool than the admin console is, allowing users to try to execute whatever operations they wish, so it’s more likely that users who attempt to do things for which they lack necessary permissions will receive failure messages. For example, a user in the Monitor role cannot read passwords:

[domain@localhost:9990 /] /profile=default/subsystem=datasources/data-source=ExampleDS:read-attribute(name=password)
{
    "outcome" => "failed",
    "result" => undefined,
    "failure-description" => "WFLYCTL0313: Unauthorized to execute operation 'read-attribute' for resource '[
    (\"profile\" => \"default\"),
    (\"subsystem\" => \"datasources\"),
    (\"data-source\" => \"ExampleDS\")
]' -- \"WFLYCTL0332: Permission denied\"",
    "rolled-back" => true
}

If the user isn’t even allowed to address the resource then the response would be as if the resource doesn’t exist, even though it actually does:

[domain@localhost:9990 /] /profile=default/subsystem=security/security-domain=other:read-resource
{
    "outcome" => "failed",
    "failure-description" => "WFLYCTL0216: Management resource '[
    (\"profile\" => \"default\"),
    (\"subsystem\" => \"security\"),
    (\"security-domain\" => \"other\")
]' not found",
    "rolled-back" => true
}

This prevents unauthorized users fishing for sensitive data in resource addresses by checking for "Permission denied" type failures.

Users who use the read-resource operation may ask for data, some of which they are allowed to see and some of which they are not. If this happens, the request will not fail, but inaccessible data will be elided and a response header will be included advising on what was not included. Here we show the effect of a Monitor trying to recursively read the security subsystem configuration:

[domain@localhost:9990 /] /profile=default/subsystem=security:read-resource(recursive=true)
{
    "outcome" => "success",
    "result" => {
        "deep-copy-subject-mode" => undefined,
        "security-domain" => undefined,
        "vault" => undefined
    },
    "response-headers" => {"access-control" => [{
        "absolute-address" => [
            ("profile" => "default"),
            ("subsystem" => "security")
        ],
        "relative-address" => [],
        "filtered-attributes" => ["deep-copy-subject-mode"],
        "filtered-children-types" => ["security-domain"]
    }]}
}

The response-headers section includes access control data in a list with one element per relevant resource. (In this case there’s just one.) The absolute and relative address of the resource is shown, along with the fact that the value of the deep-copy-subject-mode attribute has been filtered (i.e. undefined is shown as the value, which may not be the real value) as well as the fact that child resources of type security-domain have been filtered.

Description of access control constraints in the management model

metadata

The management model descriptive metadata returned from operations like read-resource-description and read-operation-description can be configured to include information describing the access control constraints relevant to the resource, This is done by using the access-control parameter. The output will be tailored to the caller’s permissions. For example, a user who maps to the Monitor role could ask for information about a resource in the mail subsystem:

[domain@localhost:9990 /] cd /profile=default/subsystem=mail/mail-session=default/server=smtp
[domain@localhost:9990 server=smtp] :read-resource-description(access-control=trim-descriptions)
{
    "outcome" => "success",
    "result" => {
        "description" => undefined,
        "access-constraints" => {"application" => {"mail-session" => {"type" => "mail"}}},
        "attributes" => undefined,
        "operations" => undefined,
        "children" => {},
        "access-control" => {
            "default" => {
                "read" => true,
                "write" => false,
                "attributes" => {
                    "outbound-socket-binding-ref" => {
                        "read" => true,
                        "write" => false
                    },
                    "username" => {
                        "read" => false,
                        "write" => false
                    },
                    "tls" => {
                        "read" => true,
                        "write" => false
                    },
                    "ssl" => {
                        "read" => true,
                        "write" => false
                    },
                    "password" => {
                        "read" => false,
                        "write" => false
                    }
                }
            },
            "exceptions" => {}
        }
    }
}

Because trim-descriptions was used as the value for the access-control parameter, the typical "description", "attributes", "operations" and "children" data is largely suppressed. (For more on this, see below.) The access-constraints field indicates that this resource is annotated with an application constraint. The access-control field includes information about the permissions the current caller has for this resource. The default section shows the default settings for resources of this type. The read and write fields directly under default show that the caller can, in general, read this resource but cannot write it. The attributes section shows the individual attribute settings. Note that Monitor cannot read the username and password attributes.

There are three valid values for the access-control parameter to read-resource-description and read-operation-description:

  • none – do not include access control information in the response. This is the default behavior if no parameter is included.

  • trim-descriptions – remove the normal description details, as shown in the example above

  • combined-descriptions – include both the normal output and the access control data

5.2.8. Learning about your own role mappings

Users can learn in which roles they are operating. In the admin console, click on your name in the top right corner; the roles you are in will be shown.

images/callersroles.png

CLI users should use the whoami operation with the verbose attribute set:

[domain@localhost:9990 /] :whoami(verbose=true)
{
    "outcome" => "success",
    "result" => {
        "identity" => {
            "username" => "aadams",
            "realm" => "ManagementRealm"
        },
        "mapped-roles" => [
            "Maintainer"
        ]
    }
}

5.2.9. "Run-as" capability for SuperUsers

If a user maps to the SuperUser role, WildFly also supports letting that user request that they instead map to one or more other roles. This can be useful when doing demos, or when the SuperUser is changing the RBAC configuration and wants to see what effect the changes have from the perspective of a user in another role. This capability is only available to the SuperUser role, so it can only be used to narrow a user’s permissions, not to potentially increase them.

CLI run-as

With the CLI, run-as capability is on a per-request basis. It is done by using the "roles" operation header, the value of which can be the name of a single role or a bracket-enclosed, comma-delimited list of role names.

Example with a low level operation:

[standalone@localhost:9990 /] :whoami(verbose=true){roles=[Operator,Auditor]}
{
    "outcome" => "success",
    "result" => {
        "identity" => {
            "username" => "$local",
            "realm" => "ManagementRealm"
        },
        "mapped-roles" => [
            "Auditor",
            "Operator"
        ]
    }
}

Example with a CLI command:

[standalone@localhost:9990 /] deploy /tmp/helloworld.war --headers={roles=Monitor}
{"WFLYCTL0062: Composite operation failed and was rolled back. Steps that failed:" => {"Operation step-1" => "WFLYCTL0313: Unauthorized to execute operation 'add' for resource '[(\"deployment\" => \"helloworld.war\")]' -- \"WFLYCTL0332: Permission denied\""}}
[standalone@localhost:9990 /] deploy /tmp/helloworld.war --headers={roles=Maintainer}

Here we show the effect of switching to a role that isn’t granted the necessary permission.

Admin console run-as

Admin console users can change the role in which they operate by clicking on their name in the top right corner and clicking on the "Run as…​" link.

images/callersroles.png

Then select the role in which you wish to operate:

images/runasrole.png

The console will need to be restarted in order for the change to take effect.

Using run-as roles with the "simple" access control provider

This "run-as" capability is available even if the "simple" access control provider is used. When the "simple" provider is used, any authenticated administrator is treated the same as if they would map to SuperUser when the "rbac" provider is used.
However, the "simple" provider actually understands all of the "rbac" provider configuration settings described above, but only makes use of them if the "run-as" capability is used for a request. Otherwise, the SuperUser role has all permissions, so detailed configuration is irrelevant.

Using the run-as capability with the "simple" provider may be useful if an administrator is setting up an rbac provider configuration before switching the provider to rbac to make that configuration take effect. The administrator can then run-as different roles to see the effect of the planned settings.

6. Application deployment

6.1. Managed Domain

In a managed domain, deployments are associated with a server-group (see  Core management concepts). Any server within the server group will then be provided with that deployment.

The domain and host controller components manage the distribution of binaries across network boundaries.

6.1.1. Deployment Commands

Distributing deployment binaries involves two steps: uploading the deployment to the repository the domain controller will use to distribute its contents, and then assigning the deployment to one or more server groups.

You can do this in one sweep with the CLI:

[domain@localhost:9990 /] deploy ~/Desktop/test-application.war
Either --all-server-groups or --server-groups must be specified.
 
[domain@localhost:9990 /] deploy ~/Desktop/test-application.war --all-server-groups
'test-application.war' deployed successfully.

The deployment will be available to the domain controller, assigned to a server group, and deployed on all running servers in that group:

[domain@localhost:9990 /] :read-children-names(child-type=deployment)
{
   "outcome" => "success",
   "result" => [
       "mysql-connector-java-5.1.15.jar",
       "test-application.war"
   ]
}
 
[domain@localhost:9990 /] /server-group=main-server-group/deployment=test-application.war:read-resource(include-runtime)
{
   "outcome" => "success",
   "result" => {
       "enabled" => true,
       "name" => "test-application.war",
       "managed" => true,
       "runtime-name" => "test-application.war"
   }
}

If you only want the deployment deployed on servers in some server groups, but not all, use the --server-groups parameter instead of -all-server-groups:

[domain@localhost:9990 /] deploy ~/Desktop/test-application.war --server-groups=main-server-group,another-group
'test-application.war' deployed successfully.

If you have a new version of the deployment that you want to deploy replacing an existing one, use the --force parameter:

[domain@localhost:9990 /] deploy ~/Desktop/test-application.war --all-server-groups --force
'test-application.war' deployed successfully.

You can remove binaries from server groups with the undeploy command:

[domain@localhost:9990 /] undeploy test-application.war --all-relevant-server-groups
Successfully undeployed test-application.war.
 
[domain@localhost:9990 /] /server-group=main-server-group:read-children-names(child-type=deployment)
{
   "outcome" => "success",
   "result" => []
}

If you only want to undeploy from some server groups but not others, use the - server-groups parameter instead of -all-relevant-server-groups.

The CLI deploy command supports a number of other parameters that can control behavior. Use the --help parameter to learn more:

[domain@localhost:9990 /] deploy --help
[...]
Managing deployments through the web interface provides an alternate, sometimes simpler approach.

6.1.2. Exploded managed deployments

Managed and unmanaged deployments can be 'exploded', i.e. on the filesystem in the form of a directory structure whose structure corresponds to an unzipped version of the archive. An exploded deployment can be convenient to administer if your administrative processes involve inserting or replacing files from a base version in order to create a version tailored for a particular use (for example, copy in a base deployment and then copy in a jboss-web.xml file to tailor a deployment for use in WildFly.) Exploded deployments are also nice in some development scenarios, as you can replace static content (e.g. .html, .css) files in the deployment and have the new content visible immediately without requiring a redeploy.

Since unmanaged deployment content is directly in your charge, the following operations only make sense for a managed deployment.

[domain@localhost:9990 /] /deployment=exploded.war:add(content=[{empty=true}])

This will create an empty exploded deployment to which you’ll be able to add content. The empty content parameter is required to check that you really intend to create an empty deployment and not just forget to define the content.

[domain@localhost:9990 /] /deployment=kitchensink.ear:explode()

This will 'explode' an existing archive deployment to its exploded format. This operation is not recursive so you need to explode the sub-deployment if you want to be able to manipulate the sub-deployment content. You can do this by specifying the sub-deployment archive path as a parameter to the explode operation.

[domain@localhost:9990 /] /deployment=kitchensink.ear:explode(path=wildfly-kitchensink-ear-web.war)

Now you can add or remove content to your exploded deployment. Note that per-default this will overwrite existing contents, you can specify the overwrite parameter to make the operation fail if the content already exists.

[domain@localhost:9990 /] /deployment=exploded.war:add-content(content=[{target-path=WEB-INF/classes/org/jboss/as/test/deployment/trivial/ServiceActivatorDeployment.class, input-stream-index=/home/demo/org/jboss/as/test/deployment/trivial/ServiceActivatorDeployment.class}, {target-path=META-INF/MANIFEST.MF, input-stream-index=/home/demo/META-INF/MANIFEST.MF}, {target-path=META-INF/services/org.jboss.msc.service.ServiceActivator, input-stream-index=/home/demo/META-INF/services/org.jboss.msc.service.ServiceActivator}])

Each content specifies a source content and the target path to which it will be copied relative to the deployment root. With WildFly 11 you can use input-stream-index (which was a convenient way to pass a stream of content) from the CLI by pointing it to a local file.

[domain@localhost:9990 /] /deployment=exploded.war:remove-content(paths=[WEB-INF/classes/org/jboss/as/test/deployment/trivial/ServiceActivatorDeployment.class, META-INF/MANIFEST.MF, META-INF/services/org.jboss.msc.service.ServiceActivator])

Now you can list the content of an exploded deployment, or just some part of it.

[domain@localhost:9990 /] /deployment=kitchensink.ear:browse-content(archive=false, path=wildfly-kitchensink-ear-web.war)
{
    "outcome" => "success",
    "result" => [
        {
            "path" => "META-INF/",
            "directory" => true
        },
        {
            "path" => "META-INF/MANIFEST.MF",
            "directory" => false,
            "file-size" => 128L
        },
        {
            "path" => "WEB-INF/",
            "directory" => true
        },
        {
            "path" => "WEB-INF/templates/",
            "directory" => true
        },
        {
            "path" => "WEB-INF/classes/",
            "directory" => true
        },
        {
            "path" => "WEB-INF/classes/org/",
            "directory" => true
        },
        {
            "path" => "WEB-INF/classes/org/jboss/",
            "directory" => true
        },
        {
            "path" => "WEB-INF/classes/org/jboss/as/",
            "directory" => true
        },
        {
            "path" => "WEB-INF/classes/org/jboss/as/quickstarts/",
            "directory" => true
        },
        {
            "path" => "WEB-INF/classes/org/jboss/as/quickstarts/kitchensink_ear/",
            "directory" => true
        },
        {
            "path" => "WEB-INF/classes/org/jboss/as/quickstarts/kitchensink_ear/controller/",
            "directory" => true
        },
        {
            "path" => "WEB-INF/classes/org/jboss/as/quickstarts/kitchensink_ear/rest/",
            "directory" => true
        },
        {
            "path" => "WEB-INF/classes/org/jboss/as/quickstarts/kitchensink_ear/util/",
            "directory" => true
        },
        {
            "path" => "resources/",
            "directory" => true
        },
        {
            "path" => "resources/css/",
            "directory" => true
        },
        {
            "path" => "resources/gfx/",
            "directory" => true
        },
        {
            "path" => "WEB-INF/templates/default.xhtml",
            "directory" => false,
            "file-size" => 2113L
        },
        {
            "path" => "WEB-INF/faces-config.xml",
            "directory" => false,
            "file-size" => 1365L
        },
        {
            "path" => "WEB-INF/classes/org/jboss/as/quickstarts/kitchensink_ear/controller/MemberController.class",
            "directory" => false,
            "file-size" => 2750L
        },
        {
            "path" => "WEB-INF/classes/org/jboss/as/quickstarts/kitchensink_ear/rest/MemberResourceRESTService.class",
            "directory" => false,
            "file-size" => 6363L
        },
        {
            "path" => "WEB-INF/classes/org/jboss/as/quickstarts/kitchensink_ear/rest/JaxRsActivator.class",
            "directory" => false,
            "file-size" => 464L
        },
        {
            "path" => "WEB-INF/classes/org/jboss/as/quickstarts/kitchensink_ear/util/WebResources.class",
            "directory" => false,
            "file-size" => 667L
        },
        {
            "path" => "WEB-INF/beans.xml",
            "directory" => false,
            "file-size" => 1262L
        },
        {
            "path" => "index.xhtml",
            "directory" => false,
            "file-size" => 3603L
        },
        {
            "path" => "index.html",
            "directory" => false,
            "file-size" => 949L
        },
        {
            "path" => "resources/css/screen.css",
            "directory" => false,
            "file-size" => 4025L
        },
        {
            "path" => "resources/gfx/headerbkg.png",
            "directory" => false,
            "file-size" => 1147L
        },
        {
            "path" => "resources/gfx/asidebkg.png",
            "directory" => false,
            "file-size" => 1374L
        },
        {
            "path" => "resources/gfx/banner.png",
            "directory" => false,
            "file-size" => 41473L
        },
        {
            "path" => "resources/gfx/bkg-blkheader.png",
            "directory" => false,
            "file-size" => 116L
        },
        {
            "path" => "resources/gfx/rhjb_eap_logo.png",
            "directory" => false,
            "file-size" => 2637L
        },
        {
            "path" => "META-INF/maven/",
            "directory" => true
        },
        {
            "path" => "META-INF/maven/org.wildfly.quickstarts/",
            "directory" => true
        },
        {
            "path" => "META-INF/maven/org.wildfly.quickstarts/wildfly-kitchensink-ear-web/",
            "directory" => true
        },
        {
            "path" => "META-INF/maven/org.wildfly.quickstarts/wildfly-kitchensink-ear-web/pom.xml",
            "directory" => false,
            "file-size" => 4128L
        },
        {
            "path" => "META-INF/maven/org.wildfly.quickstarts/wildfly-kitchensink-ear-web/pom.properties",
            "directory" => false,
            "file-size" => 146L
        }
    ]
}

You also have a read-content operation but since it returns a binary stream, this is not displayable from the CLI.

[domain@localhost:9990 /] /deployment=kitchensink.ear:read-content(path=META-INF/MANIFEST.MF)
{
    "outcome" => "success",
    "result" => {"uuid" => "b373d587-72ee-4b1e-a02a-71fbb0c85d32"},
    "response-headers" => {"attached-streams" => [{
        "uuid" => "b373d587-72ee-4b1e-a02a-71fbb0c85d32",
        "mime-type" => "text/plain"
    }]}
}

The management CLI however provides high level commands to display or save binary stream attachments:

[domain@localhost:9990 /] attachment display --operation=/deployment=kitchensink.ear:read-content(path=META-INF/MANIFEST.MF)
ATTACHMENT d052340a-abb7-4a66-aa24-4eeeb6b256be:
Manifest-Version: 1.0
Archiver-Version: Plexus Archiver
Built-By: mjurc
Created-By: Apache Maven 3.3.9
Build-Jdk: 1.8.0_91
[domain@localhost:9990 /] attachment save --operation=/deployment=kitchensink.ear:read-content(path=META-INF/MANIFEST.MF) --file=example
File saved to /home/mjurc/wildfly/build/target/wildfly-11.0.0.Alpha1-SNAPSHOT/example

6.1.3. XML Configuration File

When you deploy content, the domain controller adds two types of entries to the domain.xml configuration file, one showing global information about the deployment, and another for each relevant server group showing how it is used by that server group:

[...]
<deployments>
   <deployment name="test-application.war"
               runtime-name="test-application.war">
       <content sha1="dda9881fa7811b22f1424b4c5acccb13c71202bd"/>
   </deployment>
</deployments>
[...]
<server-groups>
   <server-group name="main-server-group" profile="default">
       [...]
       <deployments>
           <deployment name="test-application.war" runtime-name="test-application.war"/>
       </deployments>
   </server-group>
</server-groups>
[...]

~(See domain/configuration/domain.xml)~

6.2. Standalone Server

Deployments on a standalone server work in a similar way to those on managed domains. The main difference is that there are no server group associations.

6.2.1. Deployment Commands

The same CLI commands used for managed domains work for standalone servers when deploying and removing an application:

[standalone@localhost:9990 /] deploy ~/Desktop/test-application.war
'test-application.war' deployed successfully.
 
[standalone@localhost:9990 /] undeploy test-application.war
Successfully undeployed test-application.war.

6.2.2. Deploying Using the Deployment Scanner

Deployment content (for example, war, ear, jar, and sar files) can be placed in the standalone/deployments directory of the WildFly distribution, in order to be automatically deployed into the server runtime. For this to work the deployment-scanner subsystem must be present. The scanner periodically checks the contents of the deployments directory and reacts to changes by updating the server.

Users are encouraged to use the WildFly management APIs to upload and deploy deployment content instead of relying on the deployment scanner that periodically scans the directory, particularly if running production systems.
Deployment Scanner Modes

The WildFly filesystem deployment scanner operates in one of two different modes, depending on whether it will directly monitor the deployment content in order to decide to deploy or redeploy it.

Auto-deploy mode:

The scanner will directly monitor the deployment content, automatically deploying new content and redeploying content whose timestamp has changed. This is similiar to the behavior of previous AS releases, although there are differences:

  • A change in any file in an exploded deployment triggers redeploy. Because EE 6+ applications do not require deployment descriptors,
    there is no attempt to monitor deployment descriptors and only redeploy when a deployment descriptor changes.

  • The scanner will place marker files in this directory as an indication of the status of its attempts to deploy or undeploy content. These are detailed below.

Manual deploy mode:

The scanner will not attempt to directly monitor the deployment content and decide if or when the end user wishes the content to be deployed. Instead, the scanner relies on a system of marker files, with the user’s addition or removal of a marker file serving as a sort of command telling the scanner to deploy, undeploy or redeploy content.

Auto-deploy mode and manual deploy mode can be independently configured for zipped deployment content and exploded deployment content. This is done via the "auto-deploy" attribute on the deployment-scanner element in the standalone.xml configuration file:

<deployment-scanner scan-interval="5000" relative-to="jboss.server.base.dir"
   path="deployments" auto-deploy-zipped="true" auto-deploy-exploded="false"/>

By default, auto-deploy of zipped content is enabled, and auto-deploy of exploded content is disabled. Manual deploy mode is strongly recommended for exploded content, as exploded content is inherently vulnerable to the scanner trying to auto-deploy partially copied content.

Marker Files

The marker files always have the same name as the deployment content to which they relate, but with an additional file suffix appended. For example, the marker file to indicate the example.war file should be deployed is named example.war.dodeploy. Different marker file suffixes have different meanings.

The relevant marker file types are:

File Purpose

.dodeploy

Placed by the user to indicate that the given content shouldbe deployed into the runtime (or redeployed if alreadydeployed in the runtime.)

.skipdeploy

Disables auto-deploy of the content for as long as the fileis present. Most useful for allowing updates to explodedcontent without having the scanner initiate redeploy in themiddle of the update. Can be used with zipped content aswell, although the scanner will detect in-progress changesto zipped content and wait until changes are complete.

.isdeploying

Placed by the deployment scanner service to indicate that ithas noticed a .dodeploy file or new or updated auto-deploymode content and is in the process of deploying the content.This marker file will be deleted when the deployment processcompletes.

.deployed

Placed by the deployment scanner service to indicate that thegiven content has been deployed into the runtime. If an enduser deletes this file, the content will be undeployed.

.failed

Placed by the deployment scanner service to indicate that thegiven content failed to deploy into the runtime. The contentof the file will include some information about the cause ofthe failure. Note that with auto-deploy mode, removing thisfile will make the deployment eligible for deployment again.

.isundeploying

Placed by the deployment scanner service to indicate that ithas noticed a .deployed file has been deleted and thecontent is being undeployed. This marker file will be deletedwhen the undeployment process completes.

.undeployed

Placed by the deployment scanner service to indicate that thegiven content has been undeployed from the runtime. If an enduser deletes this file, it has no impact.

.pending

Placed by the deployment scanner service to indicate that ithas noticed the need to deploy content but has not yetinstructed the server to deploy it. This file is created ifthe scanner detects that some auto-deploy content is still inthe process of being copied or if there is some problem thatprevents auto-deployment. The scanner will not instruct theserver to deploy or undeploy any content (not just thedirectly affected content) as long as this condition holds.

Basic workflows:

All examples assume variable $JBOSS_HOME points to the root of the WildFly distribution.

  1. Add new zipped content and deploy it:

    1. cp target/example.war/ $JBOSS_HOME/standalone/deployments

    2. (Manual mode only) touch $JBOSS_HOME/standalone/deployments/example.war.dodeploy

  2. Add new unzipped content and deploy it:

    1. cp -r target/example.war/ $JBOSS_HOME/standalone/deployments

    2. (Manual mode only) touch $JBOSS_HOME/standalone/deployments/example.war.dodeploy

  3. Undeploy currently deployed content:

    1. rm $JBOSS_HOME/standalone/deployments/example.war.deployed

  4. Auto-deploy mode only: Undeploy currently deployed content:

    1. rm $JBOSS_HOME/standalone/deployments/example.war

  5. Replace currently deployed zipped content with a new version and deploy it:

    1. cp target/example.war/ $JBOSS_HOME/standalone/deployments

    2. (Manual mode only) touch $JBOSS_HOME/standalone/deployments/example.war.dodeploy

  6. Manual mode only: Replace currently deployed unzipped content with a new version and deploy it:

    1. rm $JBOSS_HOME/standalone/deployments/example.war.deployed

    2. wait for $JBOSS_HOME/standalone/deployments/example.war.undeployed file to appear

    3. cp -r target/example.war/ $JBOSS_HOME/standalone/deployments

    4. touch $JBOSS_HOME/standalone/deployments/example.war.dodeploy

  7. Auto-deploy mode only: Replace currently deployed unzipped content with a new version and deploy it:

    1. touch $JBOSS_HOME/standalone/deployments/example.war.skipdeploy

    2. cp -r target/example.war/ $JBOSS_HOME/standalone/deployments

    3. rm $JBOSS_HOME/standalone/deployments/example.war.skipdeploy

  8. Manual mode only: Live replace portions of currently deployed unzipped content without redeploying:

    1. cp -r target/example.war/foo.html $JBOSS_HOME/standalone/deployments/example.war

  9. Auto-deploy mode only: Live replace portions of currently deployed unzipped content without redeploying:

    1. touch $JBOSS_HOME/standalone/deployments/example.war.skipdeploy

    2. cp -r target/example.war/foo.html $JBOSS_HOME/standalone/deployments/example.war

  10. Manual or auto-deploy mode: Redeploy currently deployed content (i.e. bounce it with no content change):

    1. touch $JBOSS_HOME/standalone/deployments/example.war.dodeploy

  11. Auto-deploy mode only: Redeploy currently deployed content (i.e. bounce it with no content change):

    1. touch $JBOSS_HOME/standalone/deployments/example.war

The above examples use Unix shell commands. Windows equivalents are: cp src dest -→ xcopy /y src dest
cp -r src dest -→ xcopy /e /s /y src dest
rm afile -→ del afile
touch afile -→ echo>> afile

Note that the behavior of 'touch' and 'echo' are different but the differences are not relevant to the usages in the examples above.

6.3. Managed and Unmanaged Deployments

WildFly supports two mechanisms for dealing with deployment content – managed and unmanaged deployments.

With a managed deployment the server takes the deployment content and copies it into an internal content repository and thereafter uses that copy of the content, not the original user-provided content. The server is thereafter responsible for the content it uses.

With an unmanaged deployment the user provides the local filesystem path of deployment content, and the server directly uses that content. However the user is responsible for ensuring that content, e.g. for making sure that no changes are made to it that will negatively impact the functioning of the deployed application.

To help you differentiate managed from unmanaged deployments the deployment model has a runtime boolean attribute 'managed'.

Managed deployments have a number of benefits over unmanaged:

  • They can be manipulated by remote management clients, not requiring access to the server filesystem.

  • In a managed domain, WildFly/EAP will take responsibility for replicating a copy of the deployment to all hosts/servers in the domain where it is needed. With an unmanaged deployment, it is the user’s responsibility to have the deployment available on the local filesystem on all relevant hosts, at a consistent path.

  • The deployment content actually used is stored on the filesystem in the internal content repository, which should help shelter it from unintended changes.

All of the previous examples above illustrate using managed deployments, except for any discussion of deployment scanner handling of exploded deployments. In WildFly 10 and earlier exploded deployments are always unmanaged, this is no longer the case since WildFly 11.

6.3.1. Content Repository

For a managed deployment, the actual file the server uses when creating runtime services is not the file provided to the CLI deploy command or to the web console. It is a copy of that file stored in an internal content repository. The repository is located in the domain/data/content directory for a managed domain, or in standalone/data/content for a standalone server. Actual binaries are stored in a subdirectory:

ls domain/data/content/
  |---/47
  |-----95cc29338b5049e238941231b36b3946952991
  |---/dd
  |-----a9881fa7811b22f1424b4c5acccb13c71202bd
The location of the content repository and its internal structure is subject to change at any time and should not be relied upon by end users.

The description of a managed deployment in the domain or standalone configuration file includes an attribute recording the SHA1 hash of the deployment content:

<deployments>
   <deployment name="test-application.war"
               runtime-name="test-application.war">
       <content sha1="dda9881fa7811b22f1424b4c5acccb13c71202bd"/>
   </deployment>
</deployments>

The WildFly process calculates and records that hash when the user invokes a management operation (e.g. CLI deploy command or using the console) providing deployment content. The user is not expected to calculate the hash.

The sha1 attribute in the content element tells the WildFly process where to find the deployment content in its internal content repository.

In a domain each host will have a copy of the content needed by its servers in its own local content repository. The WildFly domain controller and slave host controller processes take responsibility for ensuring each host has the needed content.

6.3.2. Unmanaged Deployments

An unmanaged deployment is one where the server directly deploys the content at a path you specify instead of making an internal copy and then deploying the copy.

Initially deploying an unmanaged deployment is much like deploying a managed one, except you tell WildFly that you do not want the deployment to be managed:

[standalone@localhost:9990 /] deploy ~/Desktop/test-application.war --unmanaged
'test-application.war' deployed successfully.

When you do this, instead of the server making a copy of the content at /Desktop/test-application.war, calculating the hash of the content, storing the hash in the configuration file and then installing the copy into the runtime, instead it will convert /Desktop/test-application.war to an absolute path, store the path in the configuration file, and then install the original content in the runtime.

You can also use unmanaged deployments in a domain:

[domain@localhost:9990 /] deploy /home/example/Desktop/test-application.war --server-group=main-server-group --unmanaged
'test-application.war' deployed successfully.

However, before you run this command you must ensure that a copy of the content is present on all machines that have servers in the target server groups, all at the same filesystem path. The domain will not copy the file for you.

Undeploy is no different from a managed undeploy:

[standalone@localhost:9990 /] undeploy test-application.war
Successfully undeployed test-application.war.

Doing a replacement of the deployment with a new version is a bit different, the server is using the file you want to replace. You should undeploy the deployment, replace the content, and then deploy again. Or you can stop the server, replace the deployment and deploy again.

6.4. Deployment Overlays

Deployment overlays are our way of 'overlaying' content into an existing deployment, without physically modifying the contents of the deployment archive. Possible use cases include swapping out deployment descriptors, modifying static web resources to change the branding of an application, or even replacing jar libraries with different versions.

Deployment overlays have a different lifecycle to a deployment. In order to use a deployment overlay, you first create the overlay, using the CLI or the management API. You then add files to the overlay, specifying the deployment paths you want them to overlay. Once you have created the overlay you then have to link it to a deployment name (which is done slightly differently depending on if you are in standalone or domain mode). Once you have created the link any deployment that matches the specified deployment name will have the overlay applied.

When you modify or create an overlay it will not affect existing deployments, they must be redeployed in order to take effect

6.4.1. Creating a deployment overlay

To create a deployment overlay the CLI provides a high level command to do all the steps specified above in one go. An example command is given below for both standalone and domain mode:

deployment-overlay add --name=myOverlay --content=/WEB-INF/web.xml=/myFiles/myWeb.xml,/WEB-INF/ejb-jar.xml=/myFiles/myEjbJar.xml --deployments=test.war,*-admin.war --redeploy-affected
deployment-overlay add --name=myOverlay --content=/WEB-INF/web.xml=/myFiles/myWeb.xml,/WEB-INF/ejb-jar.xml=/myFiles/myEjbJar.xml --deployments=test.war,*-admin.war --server-groups=main-server-group --redeploy-affected

7. Subsystem configuration

Subsystem configuration reference :author: tcerar@redhat.com :icons: font :source-highlighter: coderay :toc: macro :toclevels: 2

The following chapters will focus on the high level management use cases that are available through the CLI and the web interface. For a detailed description of each subsystem configuration property, please consult the respective component reference.

Schema Location

The configuration schemas can found in $JBOSS_HOME/docs/schema.

7.1. EE Subsystem Configuration

The EE subsystem provides common functionality in the Jakarta EE platform, such as the EE Concurrency Utilities (JSR 236) and @Resource injection. The subsystem is also responsible for managing the lifecycle of Jakarta EE application’s deployments, that is, .ear files and configuration of global directories to share common libraries across all deployed applications.

The EE subsystem configuration may be used to:

  • customise the deployment of Jakarta EE applications

  • create EE Concurrency Utilities instances

  • define the default bindings

The subsystem name is ee and this document covers EE subsystem version 5.0, which XML namespace within WildFly XML configurations is urn:jboss:domain:ee:5.0. The path for the subsystem’s XML schema, within WildFly’s distribution, is docs/schema/jboss-as-ee_5_0.xsd.

Subsystem XML configuration example with all elements and attributes specified:

<subsystem xmlns="urn:jboss:domain:ee:5.0">
    <global-modules>
        <module name="org.jboss.logging"
                slot="main"/>
        <module name="org.apache.log4j"
                annotations="true"
                meta-inf="true"
                services="false" />
    </global-modules>
    <global-directories>
        <directory name="common-libs" path="libs" relative-to="jboss.server.base.dir"/>
    </global-directories>
    <ear-subdeployments-isolated>true</ear-subdeployments-isolated>
    <spec-descriptor-property-replacement>false</spec-descriptor-property-replacement>
    <jboss-descriptor-property-replacement>false</jboss-descriptor-property-replacement>
    <annotation-property-replacement>false</annotation-property-replacement>
    <concurrent>
        <context-services>
            <context-service
                    name="default"
                    jndi-name="java:jboss/ee/concurrency/context/default"
                    use-transaction-setup-provider="true" />
        </context-services>
        <managed-thread-factories>
            <managed-thread-factory
                    name="default"
                    jndi-name="java:jboss/ee/concurrency/factory/default"
                    context-service="default"
                    priority="1" />
        </managed-thread-factories>
        <managed-executor-services>
            <managed-executor-service
                    name="default"
                    jndi-name="java:jboss/ee/concurrency/executor/default"
                    context-service="default"
                    thread-factory="default"
                    hung-task-threshold="60000"
                    core-threads="5"
                    max-threads="25"
                    keepalive-time="5000"
                    queue-length="1000000"
                    reject-policy="RETRY_ABORT" />
        </managed-executor-services>
        <managed-scheduled-executor-services>
            <managed-scheduled-executor-service
                    name="default"
                    jndi-name="java:jboss/ee/concurrency/scheduler/default"
                    context-service="default"
                    thread-factory="default"
                    hung-task-threshold="60000"
                    core-threads="5"
                    keepalive-time="5000"
                    reject-policy="RETRY_ABORT" />
        </managed-scheduled-executor-services>
    </concurrent>
    <default-bindings
            context-service="java:jboss/ee/concurrency/context/default"
            datasource="java:jboss/datasources/ExampleDS"
            jms-connection-factory="java:jboss/DefaultJMSConnectionFactory"
            managed-executor-service="java:jboss/ee/concurrency/executor/default"
            managed-scheduled-executor-service="java:jboss/ee/concurrency/scheduler/default"
            managed-thread-factory="java:jboss/ee/concurrency/factory/default" />
</subsystem>

7.1.1. Jakarta EE Application Deployment

The EE subsystem configuration allows the customisation of the deployment behaviour for Jakarta EE Applications.

Global Modules

Global modules is a set of JBoss Modules that will be added as dependencies to the JBoss Modules module of every Jakarta EE deployment. Such dependencies allows Jakarta EE deployments to see the classes exported by the global modules.

Each global module is defined through the module resource, an example of its XML configuration:

  <global-modules>
    <module name="org.jboss.logging" slot="main"/>
    <module name="org.apache.log4j" annotations="true" meta-inf="true" services="false" />
  </global-modules>

The only mandatory attribute is the JBoss Modules module name, the slot attribute defaults to main, and both define the JBoss Modules module ID to reference.

The optional annotations attribute, which defaults to false, indicates if a pre-computed annotation index should be imported from META-INF/jandex.idx

The optional services attribute indicates if any services exposed in META-INF/services should be made available to the deployments class loader, and defaults to false.

The optional meta-inf attribute, which defaults to true, indicates if the Module’s META-INF path should be available to the deployment’s class loader.

Global Directory

Global modules can be used to share common libraries across all deployed applications, but it could be impractical if the name of a shared library changes very often or if there are many libraries you want to share. Both cases will require changes in the underlying module.xml that represents this global module.

The EE subsystem allows the configuration of a global directory, which represents a directory tree scanned automatically to include .jar files and resources as a single additional dependency. This module dependency is added as a system dependency on each deployed application. Basically, with a global directory, you will be relying on WildFly to automate the maintenance and configuration of a JBoss Modules module that represents the jar files and resources of a specific directory.

You can configure a global directory using the following operation:

  [standalone@localhost:9990 /] /subsystem=ee/global-directory=my-common-libs:add(path=lib, relative-to=jboss.home.dir)

The following attributes are available on the global-directory resource:

  • path: The path of the directory to scan. (Mandatory)

  • relative-to: The name of another previously named path, or of one of the standard paths provided by the system. (Optional)

When a global-directory is created, the server establishes a JBoss Modules module with one Path Resource Loader created using 'path' and 'relative-to' attributes and one Jar Resource loader for each jar file included in this directory and its subdirectories.

The 'Path Resource Loader' will make available any file as a resource to the application. The 'Jar Resource loader' will make available any class inside of the jar file to the applications.

For example, suppose you have configured one global directory pointing to the following directory tree:

/my-common-libs/Z/a-lib.jar
/my-common-libs/A/A/z-lib.jar
/my-common-libs/A/a-lib.jar
/my-common-libs/A/b-lib.jar
/my-common-libs/a-lib.jar
/my-common-libs/A/B/a-lib.jar
/my-common-libs/properties-1.properties
/my-common-libs/A/B/properties-2.properties

The JBoss Modules module generated after scanning this global-directory will be equivalent to the following module.xml:

<module xmlns="urn:jboss:module:1.9" name="deployment.external.global-directory.my-common-libs">
    <resources>
        <resource-root path="/my-common-libs"/>
        <resource-root path="/my-common-libs/a-lib.jar"/>
        <resource-root path="/my-common-libs/A/a-lib.jar"/>
        <resource-root path="/my-common-libs/A/b-lib.jar"/>
        <resource-root path="/my-common-libs/A/A/z-lib.jar"/>
        <resource-root path="/my-common-libs/A/B/a-lib.jar"/>
        <resource-root path="/my-common-libs/Z/a-lib.jar"/>
    </resources>

    <dependencies>
        <module name="javaee.api"/>
    </dependencies>
</module>

The name of the generated module follows the pattern deployment.external.global-directory.{global-directory-name} and as such, it can be excluded selectively using your deployment-structure.xml.

All resources will be available from the application class loader. For example, you could access the above property files using the context ClassLoader of your current thread:

Thread.currentThread().getContextClassLoader().getResourceAsStream("properties-1.properties");
Thread.currentThread().getContextClassLoader().getResourceAsStream("A/B/properties-2.properties");

All classes inside of each jar file will also be available, and the order of how the resource-root are created internally will govern the order of the class loading. The jar resources of the generated module will be created iterating over all jar files found in the directory tree. Each directory is scanned alphabetically starting from the root, and on each level, each subdirectory is also explored alphabetically until visiting all the branch. Files found on each level are also added in alphabetical order.

Notice you should know which classes are exposed on each .jar file and avoid conflicts including the same class twice with incompatible binary change. In those cases, classloading errors are likely to occur. Specifically, you should not add classes that interfere with the classes the server already makes available for your application; the goal of a global directory is not to override and replace existing library versions shipped with the server. It is a facility that will allow moving common frameworks you usually add to your application libs to a common place to facilitate maintenance.

The module created from the shared directory is loaded as soon as the first application is deployed in the server after creating the global-directory. That means, if the server is started/restarted and there are no applications deployed, then the global directory is neither scanned nor the module loaded. Any change in any of the contents of the global-directory will require a server reload to make them available to the deployed applications.

In case of domain mode or distributed environments, it is the user responsibility to make the content of the configured global directory consistent across all the server instances, as well as distribute the jar files that they contain.

EAR Subdeployments Isolation

A flag indicating whether each of the subdeployments within a .ear can access classes belonging to another subdeployment within the same .ear. The default value is false, which allows the subdeployments to see classes belonging to other subdeployments within the .ear.

  <ear-subdeployments-isolated>true</ear-subdeployments-isolated>

For example:

myapp.ear
|
|--- web.war
|
|--- ejb1.jar
|
|--- ejb2.jar

If the ear-subdeployments-isolated is set to false, then the classes in web.war can access classes belonging to ejb1.jar and ejb2.jar. Similarly, classes from ejb1.jar can access classes from ejb2.jar (and vice-versa).

This flag has no effect on the isolated classloader of the .war file(s), i.e. irrespective of whether this flag is set to true or false, the .war within a .ear will have a isolated classloader, and other subdeployments within that .ear will not be able to access classes from that .war. This is as per spec.
Property Replacement

The EE subsystem configuration includes flags to configure whether system property replacement will be done on XML descriptors and Java Annotations included in Jakarta EE deployments.

System properties etc are resolved in the security context of the application server itself, not the deployment that contains the file. This means that if you are running with a security manager and enable this property, a deployment can potentially access system properties or environment entries that the security manager would have otherwise prevented.
Spec Descriptor Property Replacement

Flag indicating whether system property replacement will be performed on standard Jakarta EE XML descriptors. If not configured this defaults to true, however it is set to false in the standard configuration files shipped with WildFly.

  <spec-descriptor-property-replacement>false</spec-descriptor-property-replacement>

When enabled, properties can be replaced in the following deployment descriptors:

  • ejb-jar.xml

  • persistence.xml

  • application.xml

  • web.xml

  • permissions.xml

JBoss Descriptor Property Replacement

Flag indicating whether system property replacement will be performed on WildFly proprietary XML descriptors, such as jboss-app.xml. This defaults to true.

  <jboss-descriptor-property-replacement>false</jboss-descriptor-property-replacement>

When enabled, properties can be replaced in the following deployment descriptors:

  • jboss-ejb3.xml

  • jboss-app.xml

  • jboss-web.xml

  • jboss-permissions.xml

  • *-jms.xml

  • *-ds.xml

Annotation Property Replacement

Flag indicating whether system property replacement will be performed on Java annotations. The default value is false.

  <annotation-property-replacement>false</annotation-property-replacement>

7.1.2. EE Concurrency Utilities

EE Concurrency Utilities (JSR 236) were introduced to ease the task of writing multithreaded applications. Instances of these utilities are managed by WildFly, and the related configuration.

Context Services

The Context Service is a concurrency utility which creates contextual proxies from existent objects. WildFly Context Services are also used to propagate the context from a Jakarta EE application invocation thread, to the threads internally used by the other EE Concurrency Utilities. Context Service instances may be created using the subsystem XML configuration:

  <context-services>
    <context-service
 name="default"
 jndi-name="java:jboss/ee/concurrency/context/default"
 use-transaction-setup-provider="true" />
  </context-services>

The name attribute is mandatory, and it’s value should be a unique name within all Context Services.

The jndi-name attribute is also mandatory, and defines where in the JNDI the Context Service should be placed.

The optional use-trasaction-setup-provider attribute indicates if the contextual proxies built by the Context Service should suspend transactions in context, when invoking the proxy objects, and its value defaults to true.

Management clients, such as the WildFly CLI, may also be used to configure Context Service instances. An example to add and remove one named other:

/subsystem=ee/context-service=other:add(jndi-name=java\:jboss\/ee\/concurrency\/other)
/subsystem=ee/context-service=other:remove
Managed Thread Factories

The Managed Thread Factory allows Jakarta EE applications to create new threads. WildFly Managed Thread Factory instances may also, optionally, use a Context Service instance to propagate the Jakarta EE application thread’s context to the new threads. Instance creation is done through the EE subsystem, by editing the subsystem XML configuration:

  <managed-thread-factories>
    <managed-thread-factory
 name="default"
 jndi-name="java:jboss/ee/concurrency/factory/default"
 context-service="default"
 priority="1" />
  </managed-thread-factories>

The name attribute is mandatory, and it’s value should be a unique name within all Managed Thread Factories.

The jndi-name attribute is also mandatory, and defines where in the JNDI the Managed Thread Factory should be placed.

The optional context-service references an existent Context Service by its name. If specified then thread created by the factory will propagate the invocation context, present when creating the thread.

The optional priority indicates the priority for new threads created by the factory, and defaults to 5.

Management clients, such as the WildFly CLI, may also be used to configure Managed Thread Factory instances. An example to add and remove one named other:

/subsystem=ee/managed-thread-factory=other:add(jndi-name=java\:jboss\/ee\/factory\/other)
/subsystem=ee/managed-thread-factory=other:remove
Managed Executor Services

The Managed Executor Service is the Jakarta EE adaptation of Java SE Executor Service, providing to Jakarta EE applications the functionality of asynchronous task execution. WildFly is responsible to manage the lifecycle of Managed Executor Service instances, which are specified through the EE subsystem XML configuration:

<managed-executor-services>
    <managed-executor-service
        name="default"
        jndi-name="java:jboss/ee/concurrency/executor/default"
        context-service="default"
        thread-factory="default"
        hung-task-threshold="60000"
        hung-task-termination-period="60000"
        core-threads="5"
        max-threads="25"
        keepalive-time="5000"
        queue-length="1000000"
        reject-policy="RETRY_ABORT" />
</managed-executor-services>

The name attribute is mandatory, and it’s value should be a unique name within all Managed Executor Services.

The jndi-name attribute is also mandatory, and defines where in the JNDI the Managed Executor Service should be placed.

The optional context-service references an existent Context Service by its name. If specified then the referenced Context Service will capture the invocation context present when submitting a task to the executor, which will then be used when executing the task.

The optional thread-factory references an existent Managed Thread Factory by its name, to handle the creation of internal threads. If not specified then a Managed Thread Factory with default configuration will be created and used internally.

The mandatory core-threads provides the number of threads to keep in the executor’s pool, even if they are idle. If this is not defined or is set to 0, the core pool size will be calculated based on the number of available processors.

The optional queue-length indicates the number of tasks that can be stored in the input queue. The default value is 0, which means the queue capacity is unlimited.

The executor’s task queue is based on the values of the attributes core-threads and queue-length:

  • If queue-length is 0, or queue-length is Integer.MAX_VALUE (2147483647) and core-threads is 0, direct handoff queuing strategy will be used and a synchronous queue will be created.

  • If queue-length is Integer.MAX_VALUE but core-threads is not 0, an unbounded queue will be used.

  • For any other valid value for queue-length, a bounded queue wil be created.

The optional hung-task-threshold defines a runtime threshold value, in milliseconds, for tasks to be considered hung by the executor. A value of 0 will never consider tasks to be hung.

The optional hung-task-termination-period defines the period, in milliseconds, for attempting the termination of hung tasks, by cancelling their execution, and interrupting their executing threads. Please note that the termination of a cancelled hung task is not guaranteed. A value of 0, which is the default, deactivates the periodic cancellation of hung tasks. Management clients, such as the WildFly CLI, may still be used to manually attempt the termination of hung tasks:

/subsystem=ee/managed-executor-service=other:terminate-hung-tasks

The optional long-running-tasks is a hint to optimize the execution of long running tasks, and defaults to false.

The optional max-threads defines the the maximum number of threads used by the executor, which defaults to Integer.MAX_VALUE (2147483647).

The optional keepalive-time defines the time, in milliseconds, that an internal thread may be idle. The attribute default value is 60000.

The optional reject-policy defines the policy to use when a task is rejected by the executor. The attribute value may be the default ABORT, which means an exception should be thrown, or RETRY_ABORT, which means the executor will try to submit it once more, before throwing an exception.

Management clients, such as the WildFly CLI, may also be used to configure Managed Executor Service instances. An example to add and remove one named other:

/subsystem=ee/managed-executor-service=other:add(jndi-name=java\:jboss\/ee\/executor\/other, core-threads=2)
/subsystem=ee/managed-executor-service=other:remove
Managed Scheduled Executor Services

The Managed Scheduled Executor Service is the Jakarta EE adaptation of Java SE Scheduled Executor Service, providing to Jakarta EE applications the functionality of scheduling task execution. WildFly is responsible to manage the lifecycle of Managed Scheduled Executor Service instances, which are specified through the EE subsystem XML configuration:

<managed-scheduled-executor-services>
    <managed-scheduled-executor-service
        name="default"
        jndi-name="java:jboss/ee/concurrency/scheduler/default"
        context-service="default"
        thread-factory="default"
        hung-task-threshold="60000"
        core-threads="5"
        keepalive-time="5000"
        reject-policy="RETRY_ABORT" />
</managed-scheduled-executor-services>

The name attribute is mandatory, and it’s value should be a unique name within all Managed Scheduled Executor Services.

The jndi-name attribute is also mandatory, and defines where in the JNDI the Managed Scheduled Executor Service should be placed.

The optional context-service references an existent Context Service by its name. If specified then the referenced Context Service will capture the invocation context present when submitting a task to the executor, which will then be used when executing the task.

The optional thread-factory references an existent Managed Thread Factory by its name, to handle the creation of internal threads. If not specified then a Managed Thread Factory with default configuration will be created and used internally.

The mandatory core-threads provides the number of threads to keep in the executor’s pool, even if they are idle. A value of 0 means there is no limit.

The optional hung-task-threshold defines a runtime threshold value, in milliseconds, for tasks to be considered hung by the executor. A value of 0 will never consider tasks to be hung.

The optional hung-task-termination-period defines the period, in milliseconds, for attempting the termination of hung tasks, by cancelling their execution, and interrupting their executing threads. Please note that the termination of a cancelled hung task is not guaranteed. A value of 0, which is the default, deactivates the periodic cancellation of hung tasks. Management clients, such as the WildFly CLI, may still be used to manually attempt the termination of hung tasks:

/subsystem=ee/managed-scheduled-executor-service=other:terminate-hung-tasks

The optional long-running-tasks is a hint to optimize the execution of long running tasks, and defaults to false.

The optional keepalive-time defines the time, in milliseconds, that an internal thread may be idle. The attribute default value is 60000.

The optional reject-policy defines the policy to use when a task is rejected by the executor. The attribute value may be the default ABORT, which means an exception should be thrown, or RETRY_ABORT, which means the executor will try to submit it once more, before throwing an exception.

Management clients, such as the WildFly CLI, may also be used to configure Managed Scheduled Executor Service instances. An example to add and remove one named other:

/subsystem=ee/managed-scheduled-executor-service=other:add(jndi-name=java\:jboss\/ee\/scheduler\/other, core-threads=2)
/subsystem=ee/managed-scheduled-executor-service=other:remove

7.1.3. Default EE Bindings

The Jakarta EE Specification mandates the existence of a default instance for each of the following resources:

  • Context Service

  • Datasource

  • Jakarta Messaging Connection Factory

  • Managed Executor Service

  • Managed Scheduled Executor Service

  • Managed Thread Factory

The EE subsystem looks up the default instances from JNDI, using the names in the default bindings configuration, before placing those in the standard JNDI names, such as java:comp/DefaultManagedExecutorService:

  <default-bindings
 context-service="java:jboss/ee/concurrency/context/default"
 datasource="java:jboss/datasources/ExampleDS"
 jms-connection-factory="java:jboss/DefaultJMSConnectionFactory"
 managed-executor-service="java:jboss/ee/concurrency/executor/default"
 managed-scheduled-executor-service="java:jboss/ee/concurrency/scheduler/default"
 managed-thread-factory="java:jboss/ee/concurrency/factory/default" />

Above bindings become application dependencies upon deployment. However in some cases they might not be required or covered by non-default resources. In such case default binding could be:

  • rewriten - to point to user configured resource( :write-attribute(name=…​,value=…​) )

  • undefined - if there is no need for runtime dependency( :undefine-attribute(name=…​) )

The default bindings are optional, if the jndi name for a default binding is not configured then the related resource will not be available to Jakarta EE applications.
If default EE resources are not required and bindings do not point at them, it is safe to remove or turn off default services.

7.2. Naming Subsystem Configuration

The Naming subsystem provides the JNDI implementation on WildFly, and its configuration allows to:

  • bind entries in global JNDI namespaces

  • turn off/on the remote JNDI interface

The subsystem name is naming and this document covers Naming subsystem version 2.0, which XML namespace within WildFly XML configurations is urn:jboss:domain:naming:2.0. The path for the subsystem’s XML schema, within WildFly’s distribution, is docs/schema/jboss-as-naming_2_0.xsd.

Subsystem XML configuration example with all elements and attributes specified:

<subsystem xmlns="urn:jboss:domain:naming:2.0">
    <bindings>
        <simple name="java:global/a" value="100" type="int" />
        <simple name="java:global/jboss.org/docs/url" value="https://docs.jboss.org" type="java.net.URL" />
        <object-factory name="java:global/foo/bar/factory" module="org.foo.bar" class="org.foo.bar.ObjectFactory" />
        <external-context name="java:global/federation/ldap/example" class="javax.naming.directory.InitialDirContext" cache="true">
            <environment>
                <property name="java.naming.factory.initial" value="com.sun.jndi.ldap.LdapCtxFactory" />
                <property name="java.naming.provider.url" value="ldap://ldap.example.com:389" />
                <property name="java.naming.security.authentication" value="simple" />
                <property name="java.naming.security.principal" value="uid=admin,ou=system" />
                <property name="java.naming.security.credentials" value="secret" />
            </environment>
        </external-context>
        <lookup name="java:global/c" lookup="java:global/b" />
    </bindings>
    <remote-naming/>
</subsystem>

7.2.1. Global Bindings Configuration

The Naming subsystem configuration allows binding entries into the following global JNDI namespaces:

  • java:global

  • java:jboss

  • java:

If WildFly is to be used as a Jakarta EE application server, then it’s recommended to opt for java:global, since it is a standard (i.e. portable) namespace.

Four different types of bindings are supported:

  • Simple

  • Object Factory

  • External Context

  • Lookup

In the subsystem’s XML configuration, global bindings are configured through the <bindings /> XML element, as an example:

<bindings>
    <simple name="java:global/a" value="100" type="int" />
    <object-factory name="java:global/foo/bar/factory" module="org.foo.bar" class="org.foo.bar.ObjectFactory" />
    <external-context name="java:global/federation/ldap/example" class="javax.naming.directory.InitialDirContext" cache="true">
        <environment>
            <property name="java.naming.factory.initial" value="com.sun.jndi.ldap.LdapCtxFactory" />
            <property name="java.naming.provider.url" value="ldap://ldap.example.com:389" />
            <property name="java.naming.security.authentication" value="simple" />
            <property name="java.naming.security.principal" value="uid=admin,ou=system" />
            <property name="java.naming.security.credentials" value="secret" />
        </environment>
    </external-context>
    <lookup name="java:global/c" lookup="java:global/b" />
</bindings>
Simple Bindings

A simple binding is a primitive or java.net.URL entry, and it is defined through the simple XML element. An example of its XML configuration:

<simple name="java:global/a" value="100" type="int" />

The name attribute is mandatory and specifies the target JNDI name for the entry.

The value attribute is mandatory and defines the entry’s value.

The optional type attribute, which defaults to java.lang.String, specifies the type of the entry’s value. Besides java.lang.String, allowed types are all the primitive types and their corresponding object wrapper classes, such as int or java.lang.Integer, and java.net.URL.

Management clients, such as the WildFly CLI, may be used to configure simple bindings. An example to add and remove the one in the XML example above:

/subsystem=naming/binding=java\:global\/a:add(binding-type=simple, type=int, value=100)
/subsystem=naming/binding=java\:global\/a:remove
Object Factories

The Naming subsystem configuration allows the binding of javax.naming.spi.ObjectFactory entries, through the object-factory XML element, for instance:

<object-factory name="java:global/foo/bar/factory" module="org.foo.bar" class="org.foo.bar.ObjectFactory">
    <environment>
        <property name="p1" value="v1" />
        <property name="p2" value="v2" />
    </environment>
</object-factory>

The name attribute is mandatory and specifies the target JNDI name for the entry.

The class attribute is mandatory and defines the object factory’s Java type.

The module attribute is mandatory and specifies the JBoss Module ID where the object factory Java class may be loaded from.

The optional environment child element may be used to provide a custom environment to the object factory.

Management clients, such as the WildFly CLI, may be used to configure object factory bindings. An example to add and remove the one in the XML example above:

/subsystem=naming/binding=java\:global\/foo\/bar\/factory:add(binding-type=object-factory, module=org.foo.bar, class=org.foo.bar.ObjectFactory, environment=[p1=v1, p2=v2])
/subsystem=naming/binding=java\:global\/foo\/bar\/factory:remove
External Context Federation

Federation of external JNDI contexts, such as a LDAP context, are achieved by adding External Context bindings to the global bindings configuration, through the external-context XML element. An example of its XML configuration:

<external-context name="java:global/federation/ldap/example" class="javax.naming.directory.InitialDirContext" cache="true">
    <environment>
        <property name="java.naming.factory.initial" value="com.sun.jndi.ldap.LdapCtxFactory" />
        <property name="java.naming.provider.url" value="ldap://ldap.example.com:389" />
        <property name="java.naming.security.authentication" value="simple" />
        <property name="java.naming.security.principal" value="uid=admin,ou=system" />
        <property name="java.naming.security.credentials" value="secret" />
    </environment>
</external-context>

The name attribute is mandatory and specifies the target JNDI name for the entry.

The class attribute is mandatory and indicates the Java initial naming context type used to create the federated context. Note that such type must have a constructor with a single environment map argument.

The optional module attribute specifies the JBoss Module ID where any classes required by the external JNDI context may be loaded from.

The optional cache attribute, which value defaults to false, indicates if the external context instance should be cached.

The optional environment child element may be used to provide the custom environment needed to lookup the external context.

Management clients, such as the WildFly CLI, may be used to configure external context bindings. An example to add and remove the one in the XML example above:

/subsystem=naming/binding=java\:global\/federation\/ldap\/example:add(binding-type=external-context, cache=true, class=javax.naming.directory.InitialDirContext, environment=[java.naming.factory.initial=com.sun.jndi.ldap.LdapCtxFactory, java.naming.provider.url=ldap\:\/\/ldap.example.com\:389, java.naming.security.authentication=simple, java.naming.security.principal=uid\=admin\,ou\=system, java.naming.security.credentials= secret])
 
/subsystem=naming/binding=java\:global\/federation\/ldap\/example:remove

Some JNDI providers may fail when their resources are looked up if they do not implement properly the lookup(Name) method. Their errors would look like:

11:31:49,047 ERROR org.jboss.resource.adapter.jms.inflow.JmsActivation (default-threads -1) javax.naming.InvalidNameException: Only support CompoundName namesat com.tibco.tibjms.naming.TibjmsContext.lookup(TibjmsContext.java:504)at javax.naming.InitialContext.lookup(InitialContext.java:421)

To work around their shortcomings, the org.jboss.as.naming.lookup.by.string property can be specified in the external-context’s environment to use instead the lookup(String) method (with a performance degradation):

<property name="org.jboss.as.naming.lookup.by.string" value="true"/>

Binding Aliases

The Naming subsystem configuration allows the binding of existent entries into additional names, i.e. aliases. Binding aliases are specified through the lookup XML element. An example of its XML configuration:

<lookup name="java:global/c" lookup="java:global/b" />

The name attribute is mandatory and specifies the target JNDI name for the entry.

The lookup attribute is mandatory and indicates the source JNDI name. It can chain lookups on external contexts. For example, having an external context bounded to java:global/federation/ldap/example, searching can be done there by setting lookup attribute to java:global/federation/ldap/example/subfolder.

Management clients, such as the WildFly CLI, may be used to configure binding aliases. An example to add and remove the one in the XML example above:

/subsystem=naming/binding=java\:global\/c:add(binding-type=lookup, lookup=java\:global\/b)
/subsystem=naming/binding=java\:global\/c:remove

7.2.2. Remote JNDI Configuration

The Naming subsystem configuration may be used to (de)activate the remote JNDI interface, which allows clients to lookup entries present in a remote WildFly instance.

Only entries within the java:jboss/exported context are accessible over remote JNDI.

In the subsystem’s XML configuration, remote JNDI access bindings are configured through the <remote-naming /> XML element:

<remote-naming />

Management clients, such as the WildFly CLI, may be used to add/remove the remote JNDI interface. An example to add and remove the one in the XML example above:

/subsystem=naming/service=remote-naming:add
/subsystem=naming/service=remote-naming:remove

7.3. DataSource configuration

Datasources are configured through the datasource subsystem. Declaring a new datasource consists of two separate steps: You would need to provide a JDBC driver and define a datasource that references the driver you installed.

7.3.1. JDBC Driver Installation

The recommended way to install a JDBC driver into WildFly 26 is to deploy it as a regular JAR deployment. The reason for this is that when you run WildFly in domain mode, deployments are automatically propagated to all servers to which the deployment applies; thus distribution of the driver JAR is one less thing for you to worry about!

Any JDBC 4-compliant driver will automatically be recognized and installed into the system by name and version. A JDBC JAR is identified using the Java service provider mechanism. Such JARs will contain a text a file named META-INF/services/java.sql.Driver, which contains the name of the class(es) of the Drivers which exist in that JAR. If your JDBC driver JAR is not JDBC 4-compliant, it can be made deployable in one of a few ways.

Modify the JAR

The most straightforward solution is to simply modify the JAR and add the missing file. You can do this from your command shell by:

  1. Change to, or create, an empty temporary directory.

  2. Create a META-INF subdirectory.

  3. Create a META-INF/services subdirectory.

  4. Create a META-INF/services/java.sql.Driver file which contains one line - the fully-qualified class name of the JDBC driver.

  5. Use the jar command-line tool to update the JAR like this:

jar \-uf jdbc-driver.jar META-INF/services/java.sql.Driver

For a detailed explanation how to deploy JDBC 4 compliant driver jar, please refer to the chapter " Application Deployment".

7.3.2. Datasource Definitions

The datasource itself is defined within the subsystem datasources:

<subsystem xmlns="urn:jboss:domain:datasources:4.0">
    <datasources>
        <datasource jndi-name="java:jboss/datasources/ExampleDS" pool-name="ExampleDS">
            <connection-url>jdbc:h2:mem:test;DB_CLOSE_DELAY=-1</connection-url>
            <driver>h2</driver>
            <pool>
                <min-pool-size>10</min-pool-size>
                <max-pool-size>20</max-pool-size>
                <prefill>true</prefill>
            </pool>
            <security>
                <user-name>sa</user-name>
                <password>sa</password>
            </security>
        </datasource>
        <xa-datasource jndi-name="java:jboss/datasources/ExampleXADS" pool-name="ExampleXADS">
           <driver>h2</driver>
           <xa-datasource-property name="URL">jdbc:h2:mem:test</xa-datasource-property>
           <xa-pool>
                <min-pool-size>10</min-pool-size>
                <max-pool-size>20</max-pool-size>
                <prefill>true</prefill>
           </xa-pool>
           <security>
                <user-name>sa</user-name>
                <password>sa</password>
           </security>
        </xa-datasource>
        <drivers>
            <driver name="h2" module="com.h2database.h2">
                <xa-datasource-class>org.h2.jdbcx.JdbcDataSource</xa-datasource-class>
            </driver>
        </drivers>
  </datasources>
 
</subsystem>

(See standalone/configuration/standalone.xml )

As you can see the datasource references a driver by it’s logical name.

You can easily query the same information through the CLI:

[standalone@localhost:9990 /] /subsystem=datasources:read-resource(recursive=true)
{
    "outcome" => "success",
    "result" => {
        "data-source" => {"H2DS" => {
            "connection-url" => "jdbc:h2:mem:test;DB_CLOSE_DELAY=-1",
            "jndi-name" => "java:/H2DS",
            "driver-name" => "h2",
            "pool-name" => "H2DS",
            "use-java-context" => true,
            "enabled" => true,
            "jta" => true,
            "pool-prefill" => true,
            "pool-use-strict-min" => false,
            "user-name" => "sa",
            "password" => "sa",
            "flush-strategy" => "FailingConnectionOnly",
            "background-validation" => false,
            "use-fast-fail" => false,
            "validate-on-match" => false,
            "use-ccm" => true
        }},
        "xa-data-source" => undefined,
        "jdbc-driver" => {"h2" => {
            "driver-name" => "h2",
            "driver-module-name" => "com.h2database.h2",
            "driver-xa-datasource-class-name" => "org.h2.jdbcx.JdbcDataSource"
        }}
    }
}
 
 
[standalone@localhost:9990 /] /subsystem=datasources:installed-drivers-list
{
    "outcome" => "success",
    "result" => [{
        "driver-name" => "h2",
        "datasource-class-info" => [{"org.h2.jdbcx.JdbcDataSource" => {
            "URL" => "java.lang.String",
            "description" => "java.lang.String",
            "loginTimeout" => "int",
            "password" => "java.lang.String",
            "url" => "java.lang.String",
            "user" => "java.lang.String"
        }}],
        "deployment-name" => undefined,
        "driver-module-name" => "com.h2database.h2",
        "module-slot" => "main",
        "driver-xa-datasource-class-name" => "org.h2.jdbcx.JdbcDataSource",
        "driver-class-name" => "org.h2.Driver",
        "driver-major-version" => 1,
        "driver-minor-version" => 3,
        "jdbc-compliant" => true
    }]
}
datasource-class-info shows connection properties defined in the (xa-)datasource-class.
Using the web console or the CLI greatly simplifies the deployment of JDBC drivers and the creation of datasources.

The CLI offers a set of commands to create and modify datasources:

[standalone@localhost:9990 /] data-source --help
 
SYNOPSIS
  data-source --help [--properties | --commands] |
              (--name=<resource_id> (--<property>=<value>)*) |
              (<command> --name=<resource_id> (--<parameter>=<value>)*)
              [--headers={<operation_header> (;<operation_header>)*}]
DESCRIPTION
  The command is used to manage resources of type /subsystem=datasources/data-source.
[...]
 
 
[standalone@localhost:9990 /] xa-data-source --help
 
SYNOPSIS
  xa-data-source --help [--properties | --commands] |
                 (--name=<resource_id> (--<property>=<value>)*) |
                 (<command> --name=<resource_id> (--<parameter>=<value>)*)
                 [--headers={<operation_header> (;<operation_header>)*}]
 
DESCRIPTION
  The command is used to manage resources of type /subsystem=datasources/xa-data-source.
 
RESOURCE DESCRIPTION
  A JDBC XA data-source configuration
 
[...]

7.3.3. Component Reference

The datasource subsystem is provided by the IronJacamar project. For a detailed description of the available configuration properties, please consult the project documentation.

7.4. Agroal configuration

The Agroal subsystem allows the definition of datasources. Declaring a new datasource consists of two separate steps: provide a JDBC driver and define a datasource that references the driver you installed.

The Agroal subsystem is provided by the Agroal project. For a detailed description of the available configuration properties, please consult the project documentation.

7.4.1. Enabling the subsystem

If the WildFly configuration does not have Agroal subsystem enabled by default, it can be enabled in the following ways.

<extensions>
    <extension module="org.wildfly.extension.datasources-agroal"/>
    [...]
</extensions>
<subsystem xmlns="urn:jboss:domain:agroal:1.0">
    [...]
</subsystem>
[standalone@localhost:9990  /] /extension=org.wildfly.extension.datasources-agroal:add
{"outcome" => "success"}
[standalone@localhost:9990  /] /subsystem=datasources-agroal:add
{
    "outcome" => "success",
    "response-headers" => {
        "operation-requires-reload" => true,
        "process-state" => "reload-required"
    }
}

7.4.2. JDBC Driver Installation

A driver definition is a reference to a class in a JDBC driver. Multiple definitions can be created on the same JDBC driver for multiple classes in it. Agroal requires an implementation of java.sql.Driver or javax.sql.DataSource for non-XA datasources, while for XA a javax.sql.XADataSource implementation is required.

Agroal will try to load an java.sql.Driver from the specified module if the class is not defined
Any installed driver provides an operation called class-info that lists all the properties available for that particular class, that can be set in the connection-factory.
<subsystem xmlns="urn:jboss:domain:agroal:1.0">
    [...]
    <drivers>
        <driver name="h2" module="com.h2database.h2" class="org.h2.Driver"/>
    </drivers>
</subsystem>
[standalone@localhost:9990  /] /subsystem=datasources-agroal/driver=h2:read-resource
{
    "outcome" => "success",
    "result" => {
        "class" => "org.h2.Driver",
        "module" => "com.h2database.h2"
    }
}

7.4.3. Common Datasource Definitions

Agroal provides both XA and non-XA datasources and most of the attributes that define them are common. This definition is mainly split in two logical units: the connection factory and the connection pool. As the name implies, the connection factory has all that is required to create new connections and connection pool defines how connections are handled by the pool.

Connection Factory definition

The connection factory requires a reference to a driver (see agroal-driver-installation). With a java.sql.Driver the preferred way to 'point' to the database is to specify an url attribute while for javax.sql.DataSource and javax.sql.XADataSource the preferred way is to specify connection-properties.

Attributes username and password are provided for basic authentication with the database. Agroal does not allow username and password to be set as connection-properties due to security requirements.

Other features provided by the connection-factory definition include the possibility of executing a SQL statement right after the connection has been created and to specify the isolation level of transactions in the database.

<subsystem xmlns="urn:jboss:domain:agroal:1.0">
     <datasource [...]>
        [...]
        <connection-factory driver="h2" url="jdbc:h2:tcp://localhost:1701" transaction-isolation="SERIALIZABLE" new-connection-sql="SELECT 1" username="sa" password="sa">
            <connection-properties>
                <property name="aProperty" value="aValue"/>
                <property name="anotherProperty" value="anotherValue"/>
            </connection-properties>
        </connection-factory>
    </datasource>
    [...]
</subsystem>
---
[standalone@localhost:9990  /] /subsystem=datasources-agroal/datasource=sample:read-resource
{
    "outcome" => "success",
    "result" => {
        "connection-factory" => {
            "driver" => "h2",
            "url" => "jdbc:h2:tcp://localhost:1701",
            "transaction-isolation" => "SERIALIZABLE",
            "new-connection-sql" => "SELECT 1",
            "username" => "sa",
            "password" => "sa",
            "connection-properties" => {
                "aProperty" => "aValue",
                "anotherProperty" => "anotherValue"
            }
        }
        [...]
    }
}
---
Connection Pool definition

The main attributes of the connection-pool definition are the ones that control it’s size. While the initial size attribute is only taken into account while bootstrapping the pool, min size and max size are always enforced and can be changed at any time without requiring a reload of the server.

Another important attribute of the connection-pool is the blocking timeout that defines the maximum amount of time a thread will wait for a connection. If that time elapses and still no connection is available an exception is thrown. Keep in mind that the default value is 0, meaning that a thread will wait forever for a connection to become available. Changing this setting does not require a reload of the server.

The connection pool provides other convenient features like background validation of connections on the pool, removal of idle connections from the pool and detection of connections held for too long by one thread. All these features are disabled by default and can be enabled by specifying an interval of time on the corresponding attribute.

There is a set of flush operations that perform many of these features on-demand. These are flush-all to close all connections immediately, flush-graceful to close all connections under normal operation, flush-invalid to remove any invalid connections from the pool and flush-idle to remove any connections not being used.
<subsystem xmlns="urn:jboss:domain:agroal:1.0">
     <datasource [...]>
        [...]
        <connection-pool max-size="30" min-size="10" initial-size="20" blocking-timeout="1000" background-validation="6000" leak-detection="5000" idle-removal="5"/>
    </datasource>
    [...]
</subsystem>
---
[standalone@localhost:9990  /] /subsystem=datasources-agroal/datasource=sample:read-resource
{
    "outcome" => "success",
    "result" => {
        "connection-pool" => {
            "max-size" => 30,
            "min-size" => 10,
            "initial-size" => 20,
            "blocking-timeout" => 1000,
            "background-validation" => 6000,
            "leak-detection" => 5000,
            "idle-removal" => 5
        }
        [...]
    }
}
---
Common datasource attributes

All datasources in Agroal have a name that’s used to locate them in the WildFly runtime model and are bound to a JNDI name.

The attribute statistics-enabled allow the collection of metrics regarding the pool that can be queried in the runtime model

There is also a reset-statistics operation provided.
<subsystem xmlns="urn:jboss:domain:agroal:1.0">
    <xa-datasource name="sample-xa" jndi-name="java:jboss/datasources/ExampleXADS" statistics-enabled="true">
        [...]
    </xa-datasource>
    [...]
</subsystem>
---
[standalone@localhost:9990  /] /subsystem=datasources-agroal/datasource=sample-xa:read-resource
{
    "outcome" => "success",
    "result" => {
        "jndi-name" => "java:jboss/datasources/ExampleXADS",
        "statistics-enabled" => true
        [...]
    }
}
---

The available statistics include the number of created / destroyed connections and the number of connections in use / available in the pool. There are also statistics for the time it takes to create a connection and for how long have threads been blocked waiting for a connection.

[standalone@localhost:9990  /] /subsystem=datasources-agroal/datasource=sample:read-resource(include-runtime)
{
    "outcome" => "success",
    "result" => {
        "statistics" => {
            "acquire-count" => 10L,
            "active-count" => 3L,
            "available-count" => 17L,
            "awaiting-count" => 0L,
            "creation-count" => 20L,
            "destroy-count" => 0L,
            "flush-count" => 0L,
            "invalid-count" => 0L,
            "leak-detection-count" => 0L,
            "max-used-count" => 20L,
            "reap-count" => 0L,
            "blocking-time-average-ms" => 0L,
            "blocking-time-max-ms" => 0L,
            "blocking-time-total-ms" => 0L,
            "creation-time-average-ms" => 96L,
            "creation-time-max-ms" => 815L,
            "creation-time-total-ms" => 964L
        }
        [...]
    }
}
DataSource specific attributes

In addition to all the common attributes, a datasource definition may disable the Jakarta Transactions integration.

Deferred enlistment is not supported, meaning that if Jakarta Transactions is enabled a connection must always be obtained within the scope of a transaction. The connection will always be enlisted with that transaction (lazy enlistment is not supported).

The connectable attribute allows a non-XA datasource to take part in an XA transaction ('Last Resource Commit Optimization (LRCO)' / 'Commit Markable Resource')
<subsystem xmlns="urn:jboss:domain:agroal:1.0">
    <datasource name="sample" jndi-name="java:jboss/datasources/ExampleDS" jta="false" connectable="false" statistics-enabled="true">
        [...]
    </datasource>
    [...]
</subsystem>
---
[standalone@localhost:9990  /] /subsystem=datasources-agroal/datasource=sample-xa:read-resource
{
    "outcome" => "success",
    "result" => {
        "connectable" => false,
        "jta" => false,
        [...]
    }
}
---
XADataSource specific attributes

At the moment there are no attributes specific to a XADataSource definition.

7.5. Logging Configuration

The overall server logging configuration is represented by the logging subsystem. It consists of four notable parts: handler configurations, logger, the root logger declarations (aka log categories) and logging profiles. Each logger does reference a handler (or set of handlers). Each handler declares the log format and output:
<subsystem xmlns="urn:jboss:domain:logging:3.0">
   <console-handler name="CONSOLE" autoflush="true">
       <level name="DEBUG"/>
       <formatter>
           <named-formatter name="COLOR-PATTERN"/>
       </formatter>
   </console-handler>
   <periodic-rotating-file-handler name="FILE" autoflush="true">
       <formatter>
           <named-formatter name="PATTERN"/>
       </formatter>
       <file relative-to="jboss.server.log.dir" path="server.log"/>
       <suffix value=".yyyy-MM-dd"/>
   </periodic-rotating-file-handler>
   <logger category="com.arjuna">
       <level name="WARN"/>
   </logger>
   [...]
   <root-logger>
       <level name="DEBUG"/>
       <handlers>
           <handler name="CONSOLE"/>
           <handler name="FILE"/>
       </handlers>
   </root-logger>
   <formatter name="PATTERN">
       <pattern-formatter pattern="%d{yyyy-MM-dd HH:mm:ss,SSS} %-5p [%c] (%t) %s%e%n"/>
   </formatter>
   <formatter name="COLOR-PATTERN">
       <pattern-formatter pattern="%K{level}%d{HH:mm:ss,SSS} %-5p [%c] (%t) %s%e%n"/>
   </formatter>
</subsystem>

7.5.1. Attributes

The root resource contains two notable attributes add-logging-api-dependencies and use-deployment-logging-config.

add-logging-api-dependencies

The add-logging-api-dependencies controls whether or not the container adds implicit logging API dependencies to your deployments. If set to true, the default, all the implicit logging API dependencies are added. If set to false the dependencies are not added to your deployments.

use-deployment-logging-config

The use-deployment-logging-config controls whether or not your deployment is scanned for per-deployment logging. If set to true, the default, per-deployment logging is enabled. Set to false to disable this feature.

7.5.2. Per-deployment Logging

Per-deployment logging allows you to add a logging configuration file to your deployment and have the logging for that deployment configured according to the configuration file. In an EAR the configuration should be in the META-INF directory. In a WAR or JAR deployment the configuration file can be in either the META-INF or WEB-INF/classes directories.

The following configuration files are allowed:

  • logging.properties

  • jboss-logging.properties

  • log4j.properties

  • log4j.xml

  • jboss-log4j.xml

You can also disable this functionality by changing the use-deployment-logging-config attribute to false.

7.5.3. Logging Profiles

Logging profiles are like additional logging subsystems. Each logging profile constists of three of the four notable parts listed above: handler configurations, logger and the root logger declarations.

You can assign a logging profile to a deployment via the deployments manifest. Add a Logging-Profile entry to the MANIFEST.MF file with a value of the logging profile id. For example a logging profile defined on /subsystem=logging/logging-profile=ejbs the MANIFEST.MF would look like:

Manifest-Version: 1.0
Logging-Profile: ejbs

A logging profile can be assigned to any number of deployments. Using a logging profile also allows for runtime changes to the configuration. This is an advantage over the per-deployment logging configuration as the redeploy is not required for logging changes to take affect.

7.5.4. Default Log File Locations

Managed Domain

In a managed domain two types of log files do exist: Controller and server logs. The controller components govern the domain as whole. It’s their responsibility to start/stop server instances and execute managed operations throughout the domain. Server logs contain the logging information for a particular server instance. They are co-located with the host the server is running on.

For the sake of simplicity we look at the default setup for managed domain. In this case, both the domain controller components and the servers are located on the same host:

Process Log File

Host Controller

./domain/log/host-controller.log

Process Controller

./domain/log/process-controller.log

"Server One"

./domain/servers/server-one/log/server.log

"Server Two"

./domain/servers/server-two/log/server.log

"Server Three"

./domain/servers/server-three/log/server.log

Standalone Server

The default log files for a standalone server can be found in the log subdirectory of the distribution:

Process Log File

Server

./standalone/log/server.log

7.5.5. List Log Files and Reading Log Files

Log files can be listed and viewed via management operations. The log files allowed to be viewed are intentionally limited to files that exist in the jboss.server.log.dir and are associated with a known file handler. Known file handler types include file-handler, periodic-rotating-file-handler and size-rotating-file-handler. The operations are valid in both standalone and domain modes.

List Log Files

The logging subsystem has a log-file resource off the subsystem root resource and off each logging-profile resource to list each log file.

CLI command and output
[standalone@localhost:9990 /] /subsystem=logging:read-children-names(child-type=log-file)
{
    "outcome" => "success",
    "result" => [
        "server.log",
        "server.log.2014-02-12",
        "server.log.2014-02-13"
    ]
}
Read Log File

The read-log-file operation is available on each log-file resource. This operation has 4 optional parameters.

Name Description

encoding

the encoding the file should be read in

lines

the number of lines from the file. A value of -1 indicates all lines should be read.

skip

the number of lines to skip before reading.

tail

true to read from the end of the file up or false to read top down.

CLI command and output
[standalone@localhost:9990 /] /subsystem=logging/log-file=server.log:read-log-file
{
    "outcome" => "success",
    "result" => [
        "2014-02-14 14:16:48,781 INFO  [org.jboss.as.server.deployment.scanner] (MSC service thread 1-11) JBAS015012: Started FileSystemDeploymentService for directory /home/jperkins/servers/wildfly-8.0.0.Final/standalone/deployments",
        "2014-02-14 14:16:48,782 INFO  [org.jboss.as.connector.subsystems.datasources] (MSC service thread 1-8) JBAS010400: Bound data source [java:jboss/myDs]",
        "2014-02-14 14:16:48,782 INFO  [org.jboss.as.connector.subsystems.datasources] (MSC service thread 1-15) JBAS010400: Bound data source [java:jboss/datasources/ExampleDS]",
        "2014-02-14 14:16:48,786 INFO  [org.jboss.as.server.deployment] (MSC service thread 1-9) JBAS015876: Starting deployment of \"simple-servlet.war\" (runtime-name: \"simple-servlet.war\")",
        "2014-02-14 14:16:48,978 INFO  [org.jboss.ws.common.management] (MSC service thread 1-10) JBWS022052: Starting JBoss Web Services - Stack CXF Server 4.2.3.Final",
        "2014-02-14 14:16:49,160 INFO  [org.wildfly.extension.undertow] (MSC service thread 1-16) JBAS017534: Registered web context: /simple-servlet",
        "2014-02-14 14:16:49,189 INFO  [org.jboss.as.server] (Controller Boot Thread) JBAS018559: Deployed \"simple-servlet.war\" (runtime-name : \"simple-servlet.war\")",
        "2014-02-14 14:16:49,224 INFO  [org.jboss.as] (Controller Boot Thread) JBAS015961: Http management interface listening on http://127.0.0.1:9990/management",
        "2014-02-14 14:16:49,224 INFO  [org.jboss.as] (Controller Boot Thread) JBAS015951: Admin console listening on http://127.0.0.1:9990",
        "2014-02-14 14:16:49,225 INFO  [org.jboss.as] (Controller Boot Thread) JBAS015874: WildFly {wildflyVersion}.0.0.Final \"WildFly\" started in 1906ms - Started 258 of 312 services (90 services are lazy, passive or on-demand)"
    ]
}

7.5.6. FAQ

Why is there a logging.properties file?

You may have noticed that there is a logging.properties file in the configuration directory. This is logging configuration is used when the server boots up until the logging subsystem kicks in. If the logging subsystem is not included in your configuration, then this would act as the logging configuration for the entire server.

The logging.properties file is overwritten at boot and with each change to the logging subsystem. Any changes made to the file are not persisted. Any changes made to the XML configuration or via management operations will be persisted to the logging.properties file and used on the next boot.

7.5.7. Logging Formatters

Formatters are used to format a log message. A formatter can be assigned to a logging handler.

The logging subsystem includes 4 types of handlers:

JSON Formatter

A formatter used to format log messages in JSON.

Examples
Simple JSON Formatter
/subsystem=logging/json-formatter=json:add(pretty-print=true, exception-output-type=formatted)
Logstash Formatter
/subsystem=logging/json-formatter=logstash:add(exception-output-type=formatted, key-overrides=[timestamp="@timestamp"],
meta-data=[@version=1])
Pattern Formatter

A formatter used to format log messages in plain text. The following table describes the format characters for the pattern formatter.

Highlighted symbols indicate the calculation of the caller is required which can be expensive to resolve.
Table 1. Pattern Syntax
Symbol Description Examples

%c

The category of the logging event. A precision specifier can be used to alter the dot delimited category

%c      org.jboss.example.Foo
%c{1}   Foo
%c{2}   example.Foo
%c{.}   ...Foo
%c{1.}  o.j.e.Foo
%c{1~.} o.~.~.Foo

%C

The class of the code calling the log method. A precision specifier can be used to alter the dot delimited class name.

%C      org.jboss.example.Foo
%C{1}   Foo
%C{2}   example.Foo
%C{.}   ...Foo
%C{1.}  o.j.e.Foo
%C{1~.} o.~.~.Foo

%d

The timestamp the log message. Any valid SimpleDateFormat pattern. The default is yyyy-MM-dd HH:mm:ss,SSS.

%d{HH:mm:ss,SSS}
%d{yyyy-MM-dd'T'HH:mm:ss.SSSXXX}

%D

The name of the module the log message came from. A precision specifier can be used to alter the dot delimited module name.

%D      org.jboss.example
%D{1}   example
%D{2}   jboss.example
%D{.}   ..example
%D{1.}  o.j.example
%D{1~.} o.~.example

%e

The exception stack trace. Accepts an argument to indicate how many levels of suppressed messages to print.

%e

Prints the full stack trace.

%e{0}

Prints the stack trace ignoring any suppressed messages.

%e{1}

Prints the stack trace with a maximum of one suppressed message.

%F

The name of the file the class that logged the message.

 

%h

The short host name. This will be the first portion of the qualified host name.

%h     localhost

%H

The qualified host name. A precision specifier can be used to alter the dot delimited host name.

%H    developer.jboss.org
%H{1} developer

%i

The process id.

 

%k

The resource bundle key.

 

%K

If colored output is supported defines the colors to map to the log message.

%K{level}

The level determines the color of the output.

%K{red}

All messages will be colored red.

%l

The location information. This includes the callers class name, method name, file name and line number.

%l    org.jboss.example.Foo.bar(Foo.java:33)

%L

The line number of the caller.

 

%m

The formatted message including any stack traces.

 

%M

The callers method name.

 

%n

A platform independent line separator.

 

%N

The name of the process.

 

%p

The level of the logged message.

 

%P

The localized level of the logged message.

 

%r

The relative number of milliseconds since the given base time from the log message.

 

%s

The simple formatted message. This will not include the stack trace if a cause was logged.

 

%t

The name of the callers thread.

 

%v

The version of the module. A precision specifier can be used to alter the dot delimited module version.

 

%x

The nested diagnostic context entries. A precision specifier can be used to specify the number of entries to print.

%x      value1.value2.value3
%x{1}   value3
%x{2}   value2.value3

%X

The mapped diagnostic context entry. The entry must be followed by the key for the MDC entry.

%X{key}

%z

Allows the timezone to be overridden when formatting the timestamp. This must precede the timestamp.

%z{GMT}%d{yyyy-MM-dd’T’HH:mm:ssSSSXXX}

%#

Allows a system property to be appended to the log message.

%#{jboss.server.name}

%$

Allows a system property to be appended to the log message.

%${jboss.server.name}

%%

Escapes the % symbol.

 

You can also modify the format by placing the optional format modifier between the percent sign and the symbol.

Table 2. Format Modifier Examples
Modifier Left Justify Min Width Max Width Example

[%20c]

false

20

 

[  org.jboss.example]

[%-20c]

true

20

 

[org.jboss.example  ]

[%.10c]

 

 

10

[org.jboss]

[%20.30c]

false

20

30

[  org.jboss.example]

[%-20.30c]

true

20

30

[org.jboss.example  ]
Examples
Simple Pattern Formatter
/subsystem=logging/pattern-formatter=DEFAULT:add(pattern="%d{HH:mm:ssSSSXXX} %-5p [%c] (%t) %10.10#{jboss.node.name} %s%e%n")
Color Pattern Formatter
/subsystem=logging/pattern-formatter=DEFAULT:add(color-map="info:cyan,warn:brightyellow,error:brightred,debug:magenta", pattern="%K{level}%d{yyyy-MM-dd'T'HH:mm:ssSSSXXX} %-5p [%c] (%t) %s%e%n")
XML Formatter

A formatter used to format log messages in XML.

Examples
Simple XML Formatter
/subsystem=logging/xml-formatter=xml:add(pretty-print=true, exception-output-type=detailed-and-formatted)
Key Overrides XML Formatter
/subsystem=logging/xml-formatter=xml:add(pretty-print=true, print-namespace=true, namespace-uri="urn:custom:1.0", key-overrides={message=msg, record=logRecord, timestamp=date}, print-details=true)
Custom Formatter

A custom formatter to be used with handlers. Note that most log records are formatted in the printf format. Formatters may require invocation of the org.jboss.logmanager.ExtLogRecord#getFormattedMessage() for the message to be properly formatted.

Examples
/subsystem=logging/custom-formatter=custom:add(class=org.jboss.example.CustomFormatter, module=org.jboss.example, properties={prettyPrint=true,printDetails=true,bufferSize=1024})

7.5.8. Handlers

Overview

Handlers define how log messages are recorded. If a message is said to be loggable by a logger the message is then processed by the log handler.

The following are the available handlers for WildFly Full;

async-handler

An async-handler is a handler that asynchronously writes log messages to it’s child handlers. This type of handler is generally used to wrap other handlers that take a substantial time to write messages.

console-handler

A console-handler is a handler that writes log messages to the console. Generally this writes to stdout, but can be set to write to stderr.

custom-handler

A custom-handler allows you to define any handler as a handler that can be assigned to a logger or a async-handler.

file-handler

A file-handler is a handler that writes log messages to the specified file.

periodic-rotating-file-handler

A periodic-rotating-file-handler is a handler that writes log messages to the specified file. The file rotates on the date pattern specified in the suffix attribute. The suffix must be a valid pattern recognized by the java.text.SimpleDateFormat and must not rotate on seconds or milliseconds.

The rotate happens before the next message is written by the handler.
periodic-size-rotating-file-handler

A periodic-size-rotating-file-handler is a handler that writes log messages to the specified file. The file rotates on the date pattern specified in the suffix attribute or the rotate-size attribute. The suffix must be a valid pattern recognized by the java.text.SimpleDateFormat and must not rotate on seconds or milliseconds.

The max-backup-index works differently on this handler than the size-rotating-file-handler. The date suffix of the file to be rotated must be the same as the current expected suffix. For example with a suffix pattern of yyyy-MM and a rotate-size of 10m the file will be rotated with the current month each time the 10Mb size is reached.

The rotate happens before the next message is written by the handler.
size-rotating-file-handler

A size-rotating-file-handler is a handler that writes log messages to the specified file. The file rotates when the file size is greater than the rotate-size attribute. The rotated file will be kept and the index appended to the name moving previously rotated file indexes up by 1 until the max-backup-index is reached. Once the max-backup-index is reached, the indexed files will be overwritten.

The rotate happens before the next message is written by the handler.
socket-handler

A socket-handler is a handler which sends messages over a socket. This can be a TCP or UDP socket and must be defined in a socket binding group under the local-destination-outbound-socket-binding or remote-destination-outbound-socket-binding resource.

During the boot logging messages will be queued until the socket binding is configured and the logging subsystem is added. This is important to note because setting the level of the handler to DEBUG or TRACE could result in large memory consumption during boot.

A server booted in --admin-only mode will discard messages rather than send them over a socket.

CLI Example
# Add the socket binding
/socket-binding-group=standard-sockets/remote-destination-outbound-socket-binding=log-server:add(host=localhost, port=4560)
# Add a json-formatter
/subsystem=logging/json-formatter=json:add
# Add the socket handler
/subsystem=logging/socket-handler=log-server-handler:add(named-formatter=json, level=INFO, outbound-socket-binding-ref=log-server)
# Add the handler to the root logger
/subsystem=logging/root-logger=ROOT:add-handler(name=log-server-handler)
Add a UDP Example
/subsystem=logging/socket-handler=log-server-handler:add(named-formatter=json, level=INFO, outbound-socket-binding-ref=log-server, protocol=UDP)
Add SSL Example
# Add the socket binding
/socket-binding-group=standard-sockets/remote-destination-outbound-socket-binding=log-server:add(host=localhost, port=4560)

# Add the Elytron key store
/subsystem=elytron/key-store=log-server-ks:add(path=/path/to/keystore.jks, type=JKS, credential-reference={clear-text=mypassword})
# Add the Elytron trust manager
/subsystem=elytron/trust-manager=log-server-tm:add(key-store=log-server-ks)
# Add the client SSL context
/subsystem=elytron/client-ssl-context=log-server-context:add(trust-manager=log-server-tm, protocols=["TLSv1.2"])

# Add a json-formatter
/subsystem=logging/json-formatter=json:add
# Add the socket handler
/subsystem=logging/socket-handler=log-server-handler:add(named-formatter=json, level=INFO, outbound-socket-binding-ref=log-server, protocol=SSL_TCP, ssl-context=log-server-context)
# Add the handler to the root logger
/subsystem=logging/root-logger=ROOT:add-handler(name=log-server-handler)
Wrapping a socket-handler in a async-handler may improve performance.
syslog-handler

A syslog-handler is a handler that writes to a syslog server via UDP. The handler support RFC3164 or RFC5424 formats.

The syslog-handler is missing some configuration properties that may be useful in some scenarios like setting a formatter. Use the org.jboss.logmanager.handlers.SyslogHandler in module org.jboss.logmanager as a custom-handler to exploit these benefits. Additional attributes will be added at some point so this will no longer be necessary.

7.5.9. How To

How do I add a log category?
/subsystem=logging/logger=com.your.category:add
How do I change a log level?

To change a handlers log level:

/subsystem=logging/console-handler=CONSOLE:write-attribute(name=level,value=DEBUG)

Changing the level on a log category is the same:

/subsystem=logging/logger=com.your.category:write-attribute(name=level,value=ALL)
How do I log my applications messages to their own file?
  1. Create a file handler. There are 3 different types of file handlers to choose from; file-handler, periodic-rotating-file-handler and size-rotating-file-handler. In this example we’ll just use a simple file-handler.

    /subsystem=logging/file-handler=fh:add(level=INFO, file={"relative-to"=>"jboss.server.log.dir", "path"=>"fh.log"}, append=false, autoflush=true)
  2. Now create the log category.

    /subsystem=logging/logger=org.your.company:add(use-parent-handlers=false,handlers=["fh"])
How do I use log4j.properties or log4j.xml instead of using the

logging subsystem configuration?

First note that if you choose to use a log4j configuration file, you will no longer be able to make runtime logging changes to your deployments logging configuration.

If that is acceptable you can use per-deployment logging and just include a configuration file in your deployment.

How do I use my own version of log4j?

If you need/want to include your version of log4j then you need to do the following two steps.

  1. Disable the adding of the logging dependencies to all your deployments with the add-logging-api-dependencies attribute and disable the use-deployment-logging-config attribute OR exclude the logging subsystem in a jboss-deployment-structure.xml.

  2. Then need to include a log4j library in your deployment.

This only works for logging in your deployment. Server logs will continue to use the logging subsystem configuration.

How do I use my own log4j2 implementation?

If you want to use your own log4j2 implementation, such as log4j-core, then you need to do the following two steps.

  1. Disable the adding of the logging dependencies to all your deployments with the add-logging-api-dependencies attribute OR exclude the org.apache.logging.log4j.api in a jboss-deployment-structure.xml.

  2. Then you would need to include the log4j-api and a log4j2 implementation library in your deployment.

This only works for logging in your deployment. Server logs will continue to use the logging subsystem configuration.

7.5.10. Loggers

WIP

This is still a work in progress. Please feel free to edit any mistakes you find
Overview

Loggers are used to log messages. A logger is defined by a category generally consisting of a package name or a class name.

A logger is the first step to determining if a messages should be logged or not. If a logger is defined with a level, the level of the message must be greater than the level defined on the logger. The filter is then checked next and the rules of the filter will determine whether or not the messages is said to be loggable.

Logger Resource

A logger resource uses the path subsystem=logging/logger=$category where $category is the of the logger. For example to a logger named org.wildfly.example would have a resource path of subsystem=logging/logger=org.wildfly.example.

A logger as 4 writeable attributes;

You may notice that the category and filter attributes are missing. While filter is writable it may be deprecated and removed in the future. Both attributes are still on the resource for legacy reasons.
filter-spec

The filter-spec attribute is an expression based string to define filters for the logger.

Filters on loggers are not inherited.
handlers

The handlers attribute is a list of handler names that should be attached to the logger. If the use-parent-handlers attribute is set to true and the log messages is determined to be loggable, parent loggers will continue to be processed.

level

The level attribute allows the minimum level to allow messages to be logged at for the logger.

use-parent-handlers

The use-parent-handlers attribute is a boolean attribute to determine whether or not parent loggers should also process the log message.

Root Logger Resource

The root-logger is similar to a #Logger Resource only it has no category and it’s name is must be ROOT.

Logger Hierarchy

A logger hierarchy is defined by it’s category. The category is a . (dot) delimited string generally consisting of the package name or a class name. For example the logger org.wildfly is the parent logger of org.wildfly.example.

7.5.11. Logging Filters

Filters are used to add fine grained control over a log message. A filter can be assigned to a logger or log handler. See the Filter documentation for details on filters.

Filter

The filter resource allows a custom filter to be used. The custom filter must reside in a module and implement the Filter interface.

It’s generally suggested to add filters to a handler. By default loggers do no inherit filters. This means if a filter is placed on a logger named org.jboss.as.logging is only checked if the logger name is equal to org.jboss.as.logging.

Examples
Adding a filter
/subsystem=logging/filter=myFilter:add(class=org.jboss.example.MyFilter, module=org.jboss.example, properties={matches="true"}, constructor-properties={pattern="*.WFLYLOG.*"))
Nesting a filter
/subsystem=logging/console-handler=CONSOLE:write-attribute(name=filter-spec, value=not(myFilter))
Filter Expressions
Filter Type Expression Description Parameter(s) Examples

accept

accept

Accepts all log messages.

None

accept

deny

deny

Denies all log messages.

None

deny

not

not(filterExpression)

Accepts a filter as an argument and inverts the returned value.

The expression takes a single filter for it’s argument.

not(match("JBAS"))

all

all(filterExpressions)

A filter consisting of several filters in a chain. If any filter find the log message to be unloggable, the message will not be logged and subsequent filters will not be checked.

The expression takes a comma delimited list of filters for it’s argument.

all(match("JBAS"), match("WELD"))

any

any(filterExpressions)

A filter consisting of several filters in a chain. If any filter fins the log message to be loggable, the message will be logged and the subsequent filters will not be checked.

The expression takes a comma delimited list of filters for it’s argument.

any(match("JBAS"), match("WELD"))

levelChange

levelChange(level)

A filter which modifies the log record with a new level.

The expression takes a single string based level for it’s argument.

levelChange(WARN)

levels

levels(levels)

A filter which includes log messages with a level that is listed in the list of levels.

The expression takes a comma delimited list of string based levels for it’s argument.

levels(DEBUG, INFO, WARN, ERROR)

levelRange

levelRange([minLevel,maxLevel])

A filter which logs records that are within the level range.

The filter expression uses a "[" to indicate a minimum inclusive level and a "]" to indicate a maximum inclusive level. Otherwise use "(" or ")" respectively indicate exclusive. The first argument for the expression is the minimum level allowed, the second argument is the maximum level allowed.

minimum level must be less than ERROR and the maximum level must be greater than DEBUGlevelRange(ERROR, DEBUG) minimum level must be less than or equal to ERROR and the maximum level must be greater than DEBUGlevelRange[ERROR, DEBUG) minimum level must be less than or equal to ERROR and the maximum level must be greater or equal to INFOlevelRange[ERROR, INFO]

match

match("pattern")

A regular-expression based filter. The raw unformatted message is used against the pattern.

The expression takes a regular expression for it’s argument. match("JBAS\d+")

substitute

substitute("pattern", "replacement value")

A filter which replaces the first match to the pattern with the replacement value.

The first argument for the expression is the pattern the second argument is the replacement text.

substitute("JBAS", "EAP")

substituteAll

substituteAll("pattern", "replacement value")

A filter which replaces all matches of the pattern with the replacement value.

The first argument for the expression is the pattern the second argument is the replacement text.

substituteAll("JBAS", "EAP")

filterName

myCustomFilter

A custom filter which is defined on a filter resource.

None

myCustomFilter
any(myFilter1, myFilter2, myFilter3)

7.6. EJB3 subsystem configuration guide

This page lists the options that are available for configuring the EJB subsystem.

A complete example of the config is shown below, with a full explanation of each

<subsystem xmlns="urn:jboss:domain:ejb3:8.0">
  <session-bean>
    <stateless>
      <bean-instance-pool-ref pool-name="slsb-strict-max-pool"/>
    </stateless>
    <stateful default-session-timeout="600000" default-access-timeout="5000" cache-ref="simple" clustered-cache-ref="clustered"/>
    <singleton default-access-timeout="5000"/>
  </session-bean>
  <mdb>
    <resource-adapter-ref resource-adapter-name="hornetq-ra"/>
    <bean-instance-pool-ref pool-name="mdb-strict-max-pool"/>
  </mdb>
  <entity-bean>
    <bean-instance-pool-ref pool-name="entity-strict-max-pool"/>
  </entity-bean>
  <pools>
    <bean-instance-pools>
      <strict-max-pool name="slsb-strict-max-pool" max-pool-size="20" instance-acquisition-timeout="5" instance-acquisition-timeout-unit="MINUTES"/>
      <strict-max-pool name="mdb-strict-max-pool" max-pool-size="20" instance-acquisition-timeout="5" instance-acquisition-timeout-unit="MINUTES"/>
      <strict-max-pool name="entity-strict-max-pool" max-pool-size="100" instance-acquisition-timeout="5" instance-acquisition-timeout-unit="MINUTES"/>
  </bean-instance-pools>
  </pools>
  <caches>
    <cache name="simple" aliases="NoPassivationCache"/>
    <cache name="passivating" passivation-store-ref="file" aliases="SimpleStatefulCache"/>
    <cache name="clustered" passivation-store-ref="infinispan" aliases="StatefulTreeCache"/>
  </caches>
  <passivation-stores>
    <file-passivation-store name="file"/>
    <cluster-passivation-store name="infinispan" cache-container="ejb"/>
  </passivation-stores>
  <async thread-pool-name="default"/>
  <timer-service thread-pool-name="default" default-data-store="default-file-store">
    <data-stores>
      <file-data-store name="default-file-store" path="timer-service-data" relative-to="jboss.server.data.dir"/>
    </data-stores>
  </timer-service>
  <remote connectors="remoting-connector" thread-pool-name="default">
    <profiles>
        <profile name="profile" exclude-local-receiver="false" local-receiver-pass-by-value="false">
          <remoting-ejb-receiver name="receiver" outbound-connection-ref="remote-ejb-connection"/>
          <remote-http-connection name="connection" uri="http://localhost:8180/wildfly-services"/>
          <static-ejb-discovery>
            <module uri="http://localhost:8180/wildfly-services" module-name="foo" app-name="bar" distinct-name="baz"/>
          </static-ejb-discovery>
        </profile>
    </profiles>
  </remote>
  <thread-pools>
    <thread-pool name="default">
      <max-threads count="10"/>
      <core-threads count="10"/>
      <keepalive-time time="60" unit="seconds"/>
    </thread-pool>
  </thread-pools>
  <iiop enable-by-default="false" use-qualified-name="false"/>
  <in-vm-remote-interface-invocation pass-by-value="false"/> <!-- Warning see notes below about possible issues -->
</subsystem>

7.6.1. <session-bean>

<stateless>

This element is used to configure the instance pool that is used by default for stateless session beans. If it is not present stateless session beans are not pooled, but are instead created on demand for every invocation. The instance pool can be overridden on a per deployment or per bean level using jboss-ejb3.xml or the org.jboss.ejb3.annotation.Pool annotation. The instance pools themselves are configured in the <pools> element.

<stateful>

This element is used to configure Stateful Session Beans.

  • default-session-timeout This optional attribute specifies the default amount of time in milliseconds a stateful session bean can remain idle before it is eligible for removal by the container. It can be overridden via ejb-jar.xml deployment descriptor or via javax.ejb.StatefulTimeout annotation.

  • default-access-timeout This attribute specifies the default time concurrent invocations on the same bean instance will wait to acquire the instance lock. It can be overridden via the deployment descriptor or via the javax.ejb.AccessTimeout annotation.

  • cache-ref This attribute is used to set the default cache for non-clustered beans. It can be overridden by jboss-ejb3.xml, or via the org.jboss.ejb3.annotation.Cache annotation.

  • clustered-cache-ref This attribute is used to set the default cache for clustered beans.

<singleton>

This element is used to configure Singleton Session Beans.

  • default-access-timeout This attribute specifies the default time concurrent invocations will wait to acquire the instance lock. It can be overridden via the deployment descriptor or via the javax.ejb.AccessTimeout annotation.

7.6.2. <mdb>

<resource-adaptor-ref>

This element sets the default resource adaptor for Message Driven Beans.

<bean-instance-pool-ref>

This element is used to configure the instance pool that is used by default for Message Driven Beans. If it is not present they are not pooled, but are instead created on demand for every invocation. The instance pool can be overridden on a per deployment or per bean level using jboss-ejb3.xml or the org.jboss.ejb3.annotation.Pool annotation. The instance pools themselves are configured in the <pools> element.

7.6.3. <entity-bean>

This element is used to configure the behavior for EJB2 EntityBeans.

<bean-instance-pool-ref>

This element is used to configure the instance pool that is used by default for Entity Beans. If it is not present they are not pooled, but are instead created on demand for every invocation. The instance pool can be overridden on a per deployment or per bean level using jboss-ejb3.xml or the org.jboss.ejb3.annotation.Pool annotation. The instance pools themselves are configured in the <pools> element.

7.6.7. <async>

This element enables async EJB invocations. It is also used to specify the thread pool that these invocations will use.

7.6.8. <timer-service>

This element enables the EJB timer service. It is also used to specify the thread pool that these invocations will use.

<data-store>

This is used to configure the directory that persistent timer information is saved to.

7.6.9. <remote>

This is used to enable remote EJB invocations. It specifies a space-separated list of remoting connectors to use (as defined in the remoting subsystem configuration), and the thread pool to use for remote invocations.

<profile>

A remote profile specifies a configuration of remote invocations that can be referenced by many deployments. EJBs that are meant to be invoked can be discovered in either a static or a dynamic way.

Static discovery decides which remote node to connect to based on the information provided by the administrator.

Dynamic discovery is responsible for monitoring the available EJBs on all the nodes to which connections are configured and decides which remote node to connect to based on the gathered data.

  • name the name of the profile

  • exclude-local-receiver If set, no local receiver is used in this profile

  • local-receiver-pass-by-value If set, local receiver will pass ejb beans by value

<static-ejb-discovery>

Static ejb discovery allows the administrator to explicitly specify on which remote nodes given EJBs are located. The module tag is used to define it:

  • module-name the name of EJB module

  • app-name the name of EJB app

  • distinct-name the distinct name EJB

  • uri the address on which given EJB is located

<remoting-ejb-receiver>

The remoting-ejb-receiver tag is used to define dynamic discovery based on the remoting protocol:

  • name name of the remote connection

  • outbound-connection-ref reference to outbound connection defined in the remoting subsystem

  • connection-timeout the timeout of the connection

<remote-http-connection>

The remote-http-connection tag is used to define dynamic discovery based on HTTP protocol:

  • name name of the HTTP connection

  • uri URI of the connection

7.6.10. <thread-pools>

This is used to configure the thread pools used by async, timer and remote invocations.

  • max-threads specifies the maximum number of threads in the thread pool. It is a required attribute and defaults to 10.

  • core-threads specifies the number of core threads in the thread pool. It is an optional attribute and defaults to max-threads value.

  • keepalive-time specifies the amount of time that non-core threads can stay idle before they become eligible for removal. It is an optional attribute and defaults to 60 seconds.

7.6.11. <iiop>

This is used to enable IIOP (i.e. CORBA) invocation of EJB’s. If this element is present then the JacORB subsystem must also be installed. It supports the following two attributes:

  • enable-by-default If this is true then all EJB’s with EJB2.x home interfaces are exposed via IIOP, otherwise they must be explicitly enabled via jboss-ejb3.xml.

  • use-qualified-name If this is true then EJB’s are bound to the corba naming context with a binding name that contains the application and modules name of the deployment (e.g. myear/myejbjar/MyBean), if this is false the default binding name is simply the bean name.

7.6.12. <in-vm-remote-interface-invocation>

By default remote interface invocations use pass by value, as required by the EJB spec. This element can use used to enable pass by reference, which can give you a performance boost. Note WildFly will do a shallow check to see if the caller and the EJB have access to the same class definitions, which means if you are passing something such as a List<MyObject>, WildFly only checks the List to see if it is the same class definition on the call & EJB side. If the top level class definition is the same, JBoss will make the call using pass by reference, which means that if MyObject or any objects beneath it are loaded from different classloaders, you would get a ClassCastException. If the top level class definitions are loaded from different classloaders, JBoss will use pass by value. JBoss cannot do a deep check of all of the classes to ensure no ClassCastExceptions will occur because doing a deep check would eliminate any performance boost you would have received by using call by reference. It is recommended that you configure pass by reference only on callers that you are sure will use the same class definitions and not globally. This can be done via a configuration in the jboss-ejb-client.xml as shown below.

To configure a caller/client use pass by reference, you configure your top level deployment with a META-INF/jboss-ejb-client.xml containing:

<jboss-ejb-client xmlns="urn:jboss:ejb-client:1.0">
    <client-context>
        <ejb-receivers local-receiver-pass-by-value="false"/>
    </client-context>
</jboss-ejb-client>

7.6.13. <server-interceptors>

This element configures a number of server-side interceptors which can be configured without changing the deployments.

Each interceptor is configured in <interceptor> tag which contains the following fields:

  • module - the module in which the interceptor is defined

  • class - the class which implements the interceptor

In order to use server interceptors you have to create a module that implements them and place it into ${WILDFLY_HOME}/modules directory.

Interceptor implementations are POJO classes which use javax.interceptor.AroundInvoke and javax.interceptor.AroundTimeout to mark interceptor methods.

Sample configuration:

<server-interceptors>
        <interceptor module="org.foo:FooInterceptor:1.0" class="org.foo.FooInterceptor"/>
</server-interceptors>

Sample interceptor implementation:

package org.foo;

import javax.annotation.PostConstruct;
import javax.interceptor.AroundInvoke;
import javax.interceptor.InvocationContext;

public class FooInterceptor {

    @AroundInvoke
    public Object bar(final InvocationContext invocationContext) throws Exception {
        return invocationContext.proceed();
    }
}

7.6.14. <client-interceptors>

This element configures a number of client-side interceptors which can be configured without changing the deployments.

Each interceptor is configured in <interceptor> tag which contains the following fields:

  • module - the module in which the interceptor is defined

  • class - the class which implements the interceptor

In order to use server interceptors you have to create a module that implements them and place it into ${WILDFLY_HOME}/modules directory.

Interceptor implementations must implement org.jboss.ejb.client.EJBClientInterceptor interface.

Sample configuration:

<client-interceptors>
        <interceptor module="org.foo:FooInterceptor:1.0" class="org.foo.FooInterceptor"/>
</client-interceptors>

Sample interceptor implementation:

package org.foo;

import org.jboss.ejb.client.EJBClientInterceptor;
import org.jboss.ejb.client.EJBClientInvocationContext;

public class FooInterceptor implements EJBClientInterceptor {

    @Override
    public void handleInvocation(EJBClientInvocationContext context) throws Exception {
        context.sendRequest();
    }

    @Override
    public Object handleInvocationResult(EJBClientInvocationContext context) throws Exception {
        return context.getResult();
    }
}
References in this document to Enterprise JavaBeans(EJB) refer to the Jakarta Enterprise Beans unless otherwise noted.

7.7. Undertow subsystem configuration

Web subsystem was replaced in WildFly 8 with Undertow.

There are two main parts to the undertow subsystem, which are server and Servlet container configuration, as well as some ancillary items. Advanced topics like load balancing and failover are covered on the "High Availability Guide". The default configuration does is suitable for most use cases and provides reasonable performance settings.

Required extension:

<extension module="org.wildfly.extension.undertow" />

Basic subsystem configuration example:

<subsystem xmlns="urn:jboss:domain:undertow:12.0">
        <buffer-cache name="default" buffer-size="1024" buffers-per-region="1024" max-regions="10"/>
        <server name="default-server">
            <http-listener name="default" socket-binding="http" />
            <host name="default-host" alias="localhost">
                <location name="/" handler="welcome-content" />
            </host>
        </server>
        <servlet-container name="default" default-buffer-cache="default" stack-trace-on-error="local-only" >
            <jsp-config/>
            <persistent-sessions/>
        </servlet-container>
        <handlers>
            <file name="welcome-content" path="${jboss.home.dir}/welcome-content" directory-listing="true"/>
        </handlers>
    </subsystem>
Attribute Description

default-server

the default server to use for deployments

default-virtual-host

the default virtual host to use for deployments

default-servlet-container

the default servlet container to use for deployments

instance-id

the id of Undertow. Defaults to "${jboss.node.name}" if undefined

obfuscate-session-route

set this to "true" to indicate the instance-id should be obfuscated in routing. This prevents instance-id from being sent across HTTP connections when serving remote requests with the HTTP invoker.

default-security-domain

the default security domain used by web deployments

statistics-enabled

set this to true to enable statistics gathering for Undertow subsystem

When setting obfuscate-session-route to "true", the server’s name is used as a salt in the hashing algorithm that obfuscates the value of instance-id. For that reason, it is strongly advised that the value of the server be changed from "default-server" to something else, or else it would be easy to reverse engineer the obfuscated route to its original value, using "default-server" bytes as the salt.

Dependencies on other subsystems:

IO Subsystem

7.7.1. Buffer cache configuration

The buffer cache is used for caching content, such as static files. Multiple buffer caches can be configured, which allows for separate servers to use different sized caches.

Buffers are allocated in regions, and are of a fixed size. If you are caching many small files then using a smaller buffer size will be better.

The total amount of space used can be calculated by multiplying the buffer size by the number of buffers per region by the maximum number of regions.

  <buffer-caches>
    <buffer-cache name="default" buffer-size="1024" buffers-per-region="1024" max-regions="10"/>
  </buffer-caches>
Attribute Description

buffer-size

The size of the buffers. Smaller buffers allow space to be utilised more effectively

buffers-per-region

The numbers of buffers per region

max-regions

The maximum number of regions. This controls the maximum amount of memory that can be used for caching

7.7.2. Server configuration

A server represents an instance of Undertow. Basically this consists of a set of connectors and some configured handlers.

<server name="default-server" default-host="default-host" servlet-container="default" >
Attribute Description

name

the name of this server

default-host

the virtual host that will be used if an incoming request as no Host: header

servlet-container

the servlet container that will be used by this server, unless is is explicitly overriden by the deployment

Connector configuration

Undertow provides HTTP, HTTPS and AJP connectors, which are configured per server.

Common settings

The following settings are common to all connectors:

Attribute Description

socket-binding

The socket binding to use. This determines the address and port the listener listens on.

worker

A reference to an XNIO worker, as defined in the IO subsystem. The worker that is in use controls the IO and blocking thread pool.

buffer-pool

A reference to a buffer pool as defined in the IO subsystem. These buffers are used internally to read and write requests. In general these should be at least 8k, unless you are in a memory constrained environment.

enabled

If the connector is enabled.

max-post-size

The maximum size of incoming post requests that is allowed.

buffer-pipelined-data

If responses to HTTP pipelined requests should be buffered, and send out in a single write. This can improve performance if HTTP pipe lining is in use and responses are small.

max-header-size

The maximum size of a HTTP header block that is allowed. Responses with to much data in their header block will have the request terminated and a bad request response send.

max-parameters

The maximum number of query or path parameters that are allowed. This limit exists to prevent hash collision based DOS attacks.

max-headers

The maximum number of headers that are allowed. This limit exists to prevent hash collision based DOS attacks.

max-cookies

The maximum number of cookies that are allowed. This limit exists to prevent hash collision based DOS attacks.

allow-encoded-slash

Set this to true if you want the server to decode percent encoded slash characters. This is probably a bad idea, as it can have security implications, due to different servers interpreting the slash differently. Only enable this if you have a legacy application that requires it.

decode-url

If the URL should be decoded. If this is not set to true then percent encoded characters in the URL will be left as is.

url-charset

The charset to decode the URL to.

always-set-keep-alive

If the 'Connection: keep-alive' header should be added to all responses, even if not required by spec.

disallowed-methods

A comma separated list of HTTP methods that are not allowed. HTTP TRACE is disabled by default.

HTTP Connector
<http-listener name="default" socket-binding="http"  />
Attribute Description

certificate-forwarding

If this is set to true then the HTTP listener will read a client certificate from the SSL_CLIENT_CERT header. This allows client cert authentication to be used, even if the server does not have a direct SSL connection to the end user. This should only be enabled for servers behind a proxy that has been configured to always set these headers.

redirect-socket

The socket binding to redirect requests that require security too.

proxy-address-forwarding

If this is enabled then the X-Forwarded-For and X-Forwarded-Proto headers will be used to determine the peer address. This allows applications that are behind a proxy to see the real address of the client, rather than the address of the proxy.

HTTPS listener

Https listener provides secure access to the server. The most important configuration option is security realm which defines SSL secure context.

<https-listener name="default" socket-binding="https" security-realm="ssl-realm" />
Attribute Description

security-realm

The security realm to use for the SSL configuration. See Security realm examples for how to configure it: Examples

verify-client

One of either NOT_REQUESTED, REQUESTED or REQUIRED. If client cert auth is in use this should be either REQUESTED or REQUIRED.

enabled-cipher-suites

A list of cypher suit names that are allowed.

AJP listener
<ajp-listener name="default" socket-binding="ajp" />
Host configuration

The host element corresponds to a virtual host.

Attribute Description

name

The virtual host name

alias

A whitespace separated list of additional host names that should be matched

default-web-module

The name of a deployment that should be used to serve up requests that do not match anything.

queue-requests-on-start

If requests should be queued on start for this host. If this is set to false the default response code will be returned instead.

Note: If a Non-graceful Startup is requested, and the queue-requests-on-start attribute is not set, requests will NOT be queued despite the default value of true for the property. In the instance of a non-graceful startup, non-queued requests are required. However, if non-graceful is configured, but queue-requests-on-start is explicitly set to true, then requests will be queued, effectively disabling the non-graceful mode for requests to that host.

Console Access Logging

Each host allows for access logging to the console which writes structured data in JSON format. This only writes to stdout and is a single line of JSON structured data.

The attributes management model attribute is used to determine which exchange attributes should be logged. This is similar to the pattern used for traditional access logging. The main difference being since the data is structured the ability to use defined keys is essential.

A metadata attribute also exists which allows extra metadata to be added to the output. The value of the attribute is a set of arbitrary key/value pairs. The values can include management model expressions, which must be resolvable when the console access log service is started. The value is resolved once per start or reload of the server.

CLI Examples
add-console-access-logging.cli
/subsystem=undertow/server=default-server/host=default-host/setting=console-access-log:add
complex-add-console-access-logging.cli
/subsystem=undertow/server=default-server/host=default-host/setting=console-access-log:add(metadata={"@version"="1", "qualifiedHostName"=${jboss.qualified.host.name:unknown}}, attributes={bytes-sent={}, date-time={key="@timestamp", date-format="yyyy-MM-dd'T'HH:mm:ssSSS"}, remote-host={}, request-line={}, response-header={key-prefix="responseHeader", names=["Content-Type"]}, response-code={}, remote-user={}})
{
    "eventSource":"web-access",
    "hostName":"default-host",
    "@version":"1",
    "qualifiedHostName":"localhost.localdomain",
    "bytesSent":1504,
    "@timestamp":"2019-05-02T11:57:37123",
    "remoteHost":"127.0.0.1",
    "remoteUser":null,
    "requestLine":"GET / HTTP/2.0",
    "responseCode":200,
    "responseHeaderContent-Type":"text/html"
}
The above JSON is formatted only for readability. The output will be on a single line.

7.7.3. Servlet container configuration

The servlet-container element corresponds to an instance of an Undertow Servlet container. Most servers will only need a single servlet container, however there may be cases where it makes sense to define multiple containers (in particular if you want applications to be isolated, so they cannot dispatch to each other using the RequestDispatcher. You can also use multiple Servlet containers to serve different applications from the same context path on different virtual hosts).

Attribute Description

allow-non-standard-wrappers

The Servlet specification requires applications to only wrap the request/response using wrapper classes that extend from the ServletRequestWrapper and ServletResponseWrapper classes. If this is set to true then this restriction is relaxed.

default-buffer-cache

The buffer cache that is used to cache static resources in the default Servlet.

stack-trace-on-error

Can be either all, none, or local-only. When set to none Undertow will never display stack traces. When set to All Undertow will always display them (not recommended for production use). When set to local-only Undertow will only display them for requests from local addresses, where there are no headers to indicate that the request has been proxied. Note that this feature means that the Undertow error page will be displayed instead of the default error page specified in web.xml.

default-encoding

The default encoding to use for requests and responses.

use-listener-encoding

If this is true then the default encoding will be the same as that used by the listener that received the request.

preserve-path-on-forward

If this is true, the return values of the getServletPath(), getRequestURL() and getRequestURI() methods from HttpServletRequest will be unchanged following a RequestDispatcher.forward() call, and point to the original resource requested. If false, following the RequestDispatcher.forward() call, they will point to the resource being forwarded to.

This allows you to change the attributes of the session cookie.

Attribute Description

name

The cookie name

domain

The cookie domain

comment

The cookie comment

http-only

If the cookie is HTTP only

secure

If the cookie is marked secure

max-age

The max age of the cookie

Persistent Session Configuration

Persistent sessions allow session data to be saved across redeploys and restarts. This feature is enabled by adding the persistent-sessions element to the server config. This is mostly intended to be a development time feature.

If the path is not specified then session data is stored in memory, and will only be persistent across redeploys, rather than restarts.

Attribute Description

path

The path to the persistent sessions data

relative-to

The location that the path is relevant to

7.7.4. AJP listeners

The AJP listeners are child resources of the subsystem undertow. They are used with mod_jk, mod_proxy and mod_cluster of the Apache httpd front-end. Each listener does reference a particular socket binding:

[standalone@localhost:9999 /] /subsystem=undertow/server=default-server:read-children-names(child-type=ajp-listener)
{
    "outcome" => "success",
    "result" => [
        "ajp-listener",
    ]
}
 
[standalone@localhost:9999 /] /subsystem=undertow/server=default-server/ajp-listener=*:read-resource(recursive=true)
{
    "outcome" => "success",
    "result" => {
        "enabled" => "true",
        "scheme" => "http",
        "socket-binding" => "ajp",
    }
}

Creating a new ajp-listener requires you to declare a new socket binding first:

[standalone@localhost:9999 /] /socket-binding-group=standard-sockets/socket-binding=ajp:add(port=8009)

The newly created, unused socket binding can then be used to create a new connector configuration:

[standalone@localhost:9999 /] /subsystem=undertow/server=default-server/ajp-listener=myListener:add(socket-binding=ajp, scheme=http, enabled=true)

7.7.5. Using WildFly as a Load Balancer

WildFly 10 added support for using the Undertow subsystem as a load balancer. WildFly supports two different approaches, you can either define a static load balancer, and specify the back end hosts in your configuration, or use it as a mod_cluster frontend, and use mod_cluster to dynamically update the hosts.

General Overview

WildFly uses Undertow’s proxy capabilities to act as a load balancer. Undertow will connect to the back end servers using its built in client, and proxies requests.

The following protocols are supported:

  • http

  • ajp

  • http2

  • h2c (clear text HTTP2)
    Of these protocols h2c should give the best performance, if the back end servers support it.

The Undertow proxy uses async IO, the only threads that are involved in the request is the IO thread that is responsible for the connection. The connection to the back end server is made from the same thread, which removes the need for any thread safety constructs.
If both the front and back end servers support server push, and HTTP2 is in use then the proxy also supports pushing responses to the client. In cases where proxy and backend are capable of server push, but the client does not support it the server will send a X-Disable-Push header to let the backend know that it should not attempt to push for this request.

Load balancer server profiles

WildFly 11 added load balancer profiles for both standalone and domain modes.

Example: Start standalone load balancer
# configure correct path to WildFly installation
WILDFLY_HOME=/path/to/wildfly

# configure correct IP of the node
MY_IP=192.168.1.1

# run the load balancer profile
$WILDFLY_HOME/bin/standalone.sh -b $MY_IP -bprivate $MY_IP -c standalone-load-balancer.xml

It’s highly recommended to use private/internal network for communication between load balancer and nodes. To do this set the correct IP address to the private interface (-bprivate argument).

Example: Start worker node

Run the server with the HA (or Full HA) profile, which has mod_cluster component included. If the UDP multicast is working in your environment, the workers should work out of the box without any change. If it’s not the case, then configure the IP address of the load balancer statically.

# configure correct path to WildFly installation
WILDFLY_HOME=/path/to/wildfly
# configure correct IP of the node
MY_IP=192.168.1.2

# Configure static load balancer IP address.
# This is necessary when UDP multicast doesn't work in your environment.
LOAD_BALANCER_IP=192.168.1.1
$WILDFLY_HOME/bin/jboss-cli.sh <<EOT

embed-server -c=standalone-ha.xml
/subsystem=modcluster/proxy=default:write-attribute(name=advertise, value=false)
/socket-binding-group=standard-sockets/remote-destination-outbound-socket-binding=proxy1:add(host=$LOAD_BALANCER_IP, port=8090)
/subsystem=modcluster/proxy=default:list-add(name=proxies, value=proxy1)
EOT

# start the woker node with HA profile
$WILDFLY_HOME/bin/standalone.sh -c standalone-ha.xml -b $MY_IP -bprivate $MY_IP

Again, to make it safe, users should configure private/internal IP address into MY_IP variable.

Using WildFly as a static load balancer

To use WildFly as a static load balancer the first step is to create a proxy handler in the Undertow subsystem. For the purposes of this example we are going to assume that our load balancer is going to load balance between two servers, sv1.foo.com and sv2.foo.com, and will be using the AJP protocol.

The first step is to add a reverse proxy handler to the Undertow subsystem:

/subsystem=undertow/configuration=handler/reverse-proxy=my-handler:add()

Then we need to define outbound-socket-binding-s for remote hosts:

/socket-binding-group=standard-sockets/remote-destination-outbound-socket-binding=remote-host1:add(host=sv1.foo.com, port=8009)
/socket-binding-group=standard-sockets/remote-destination-outbound-socket-binding=remote-host2:add(host=sv2.foo.com, port=8009)

and than we add them as hosts to reverse proxy handler:

/subsystem=undertow/configuration=handler/reverse-proxy=my-handler/host=host1:add(outbound-socket-binding=remote-host1, scheme=ajp, instance-id=myroute, path=/test)
/subsystem=undertow/configuration=handler/reverse-proxy=my-handler/host=host2:add(outbound-socket-binding=remote-host2, scheme=ajp, instance-id=myroute, path=/test)

Now we need to actually add the reverse proxy to a location. Assuming we are serving the path /app:

/subsystem=undertow/server=default-server/host=default-host/location=\/app:add(handler=my-handler)

This is all there is to it. If you point your browser to http://localhost:8080/app you should be able to see the proxied content.

The full details of all configuration options available can be found in the subsystem reference.

7.8. Messaging configuration

The Jakarta Messaging server configuration is done through the messaging-activemq subsystem. In this chapter we are going outline the frequently used configuration options. For a more detailed explanation please consult the Artemis user guide (See "Component Reference").

7.8.1. Required Extension

The configuration options discussed in this section assume that the the org.wildfly.extension.messaging-activemq extension is present in your configuration. This extension is not included in the standard standalone.xml and standalone-ha.xml configurations included in the WildFly distribution. It is, however, included with the standalone-full.xml and standalone-full-ha.xml configurations.

You can add the extension to a configuration without it either by adding an <extension module="org.wildfly.extension.messaging-activemq"/> element to the xml or by using the following CLI operation:

[standalone@localhost:9990 /]/extension=org.wildfly.extension.messaging-activemq:add

7.8.2. Connectors

There are three kind of connectors that can be used to connect to WildFly Jakarta Messaging Server

  • invm-connector can be used by a local client (i.e. one running in the same JVM as the server)

  • netty-connector can be used by a remote client (and uses Netty over TCP for the communication)

  • http-connector can be used by a remote client (and uses Undertow Web Server to upgrade from a HTTP connection)

7.8.3. Jakarta Messaging Connection Factories

There are three kinds of basic Jakarta Messaging connection-factory that depends on the type of connectors that is used.

There is also a pooled-connection-factory which is special in that it is essentially a configuration facade for both the inbound and outbound connectors of the the Artemis Jakarta Connectors Resource Adapter. An MDB can be configured to use a pooled-connection-factory (e.g. using @ResourceAdapter). In this context, the MDB leverages the inbound connector of the Artemis Jakarta Connectors RA. Other kinds of clients can look up the pooled-connection-factory in JNDI (or inject it) and use it to send messages. In this context, such a client would leverage the outbound connector of the Artemis Jakarta Connectors RA. A pooled-connection-factory is also special because:

  • It is only available to local clients, although it can be configured to point to a remote server.

  • As the name suggests, it is pooled and therefore provides superior performance to the clients which are able to use it. The pool size can be configured via the max-pool-size and min-pool-size attributes.

  • It should only be used to send (i.e. produce) messages when looked up in JNDI or injected.

  • It can be configured to use specific security credentials via the user and password attributes. This is useful if the remote server to which it is pointing is secured.

  • Resources acquired from it will be automatically enlisted any on-going Jakarta Transactions. If you want to send a message from an Jakarta Enterprise Beans using CMT then this is likely the connection factory you want to use so the send operation will be atomically committed along with the rest of the Jakarta Enterprise Beans’s transaction operations.

To be clear, the inbound connector of the Artemis Jakarta Connectors RA (which is for consuming messages) is only used by MDBs and other Jakarta Connectors based components. It is not available to traditional clients.

Both a connection-factory and a pooled-connection-factory reference a connector declaration.

A netty-connector is associated with a socket-binding which tells the client using the connection-factory where to connect.

  • A connection-factory referencing a netty-connector is suitable to be used by a remote client to send messages to or receive messages from the server (assuming the connection-factory has an appropriately exported entry).

  • A pooled-connection-factory looked up in JNDI or injected which is referencing a netty-connector is suitable to be used by a local client to send messages to a remote server granted the socket-binding references an outbound-socket-binding pointing to the remote server in question.

  • A pooled-connection-factory used by an MDB which is referencing a remote-connector is suitable to consume messages from a remote server granted the socket-binding references an outbound-socket-binding pointing to the remote server in question.

An in-vm-connector is associated with a server-id which tells the client using the connection-factory where to connect (since multiple Artemis servers can run in a single JVM).

  • A connection-factory referencing an in-vm-connector is suitable to be used by a local client to either send messages to or receive messages from a local server.

  • A pooled-connection-factory looked up in JNDI or injected which is referencing an in-vm-connector is suitable to be used by a local client only to send messages to a local server.

  • A pooled-connection-factory used by an MDB which is referencing an in-vm-connector is suitable only to consume messages from a local server.

A http-connector is associated with the socket-binding that represents the HTTP socket (by default, named http).

  • A connection-factory referencing a http-connector is suitable to be used by a remote client to send messages to or receive messages from the server by connecting to its HTTP port before upgrading to the messaging protocol.

  • A pooled-connection-factory referencing a http-connector is suitable to be used by a local client to send messages to a remote server granted the socket-binding references an outbound-socket-binding pointing to the remote server in question.

  • A pooled-connection-factory used by an MDB which is referencing a http-connector is suitable only to consume messages from a remote server granted the socket-binding references an outbound-socket-binding pointing to the remote server in question.

The entry declaration of a connection-factory or a pooled-connection-factory specifies the JNDI name under which the factory will be exposed. Only JNDI names bound in the "java:jboss/exported" namespace are available to remote clients. If a connection-factory has an entry bound in the "java:jboss/exported" namespace a remote client would look-up the connection-factory using the text after "java:jboss/exported". For example, the " RemoteConnectionFactory`" is bound by default to `"java:jboss/exported/jms/RemoteConnectionFactory" which means a remote client would look-up this connection-factory using " jms/RemoteConnectionFactory`". A `pooled-connection-factory should not have any entry bound in the " java:jboss/exported`" namespace because a `pooled-connection-factory is not suitable for remote clients.

Since Jakarta Messaging 2.0, a default Jakarta Messaging connection factory is accessible to Jakarta EE applications under the JNDI name java:comp/DefaultJMSConnectionFactory. The WildFly messaging subsystem defines a pooled-connection-factory that is used to provide this default connection factory. Any parameter change on this pooled-connection-factory will be take into account by any EE application looking the default Jakarta Messaging provider under the JNDI name java:comp/DefaultJMSConnectionFactory.

<subsystem xmlns="urn:jboss:domain:messaging-activemq:1.0">
    <server name="default">
        [...]
        <http-connector name="http-connector"
                        socket-binding="http"
                        endpoint="http-acceptor" />
        <http-connector name="http-connector-throughput"
                        socket-binding="http"
                        endpoint="http-acceptor-throughput">
            <param name="batch-delay"
                   value="50"/>
        </http-connector>
        <in-vm-connector name="in-vm"
                         server-id="0"/>
      [...]
      <connection-factory name="InVmConnectionFactory"
                            connectors="in-vm"
                            entries="java:/ConnectionFactory" />
      <pooled-connection-factory name="activemq-ra"
                            transaction="xa"
                            connectors="in-vm"
                            entries="java:/JmsXA java:jboss/DefaultJMSConnectionFactory"/>
      [...]
   </server>
</subsystem>

~(See standalone/configuration/standalone-full.xml)~

7.8.4. Jakarta Messaging Queues and Topics

Jakarta Messaging queues and topics are sub resources of the messaging-actively subsystem. One can define either a jms-queue or jms-topic. Each destination must be given a name and contain at least one entry in its entries element (separated by whitespace).

Each entry refers to a JNDI name of the queue or topic. Keep in mind that any jms-queue or jms-topic which needs to be accessed by a remote client needs to have an entry in the "java:jboss/exported" namespace. As with connection factories, if a jms-queue or or jms-topic has an entry bound in the "java:jboss/exported" namespace a remote client would look it up using the text after "java:jboss/exported`". For example, the following `jms-queue "testQueue" is bound to "java:jboss/exported/jms/queue/test" which means a remote client would look-up this \{{kms-queue} using "jms/queue/test". A local client could look it up using "java:jboss/exported/jms/queue/test", "java:jms/queue/test", or more simply "jms/queue/test":

<subsystem xmlns="urn:jboss:domain:messaging-activemq:1.0">
    <server name="default">
    [...]
    <jms-queue name="testQueue"
               entries="jms/queue/test java:jboss/exported/jms/queue/test" />
    <jms-topic name="testTopic"
               entries="jms/topic/test java:jboss/exported/jms/topic/test" />
</subsystem>

~(See standalone/configuration/standalone-full.xml)~

Jakarta Messaging endpoints can easily be created through the CLI:

[standalone@localhost:9990 /] jms-queue add --queue-address=myQueue --entries=queues/myQueue
[standalone@localhost:9990 /] /subsystem=messaging-activemq/server=default/jms-queue=myQueue:read-resource
{
    "outcome" => "success",
    "result" => {
        "durable" => true,
        "entries" => ["queues/myQueue"],
        "selector" => undefined
    }
}

Pausing and resuming Queues and Topics

When a queue is paused, it will receive messages but will not deliver them. When it’s resumed, it’ll begin delivering the queued messages, if any. When a topic is paused, it will receive messages but will not deliver them. Newly added subscribers will be paused too until the topic is resumed. When it is resumed, delivering will occur again. The persist parameter ensure that the topic stays paused on the restart of the server.

[standalone@localhost:9990 /] /subsystem=messaging-activemq/server=default/jms-queue=myQueue:pause()
[standalone@localhost:9990 /] /subsystem=messaging-activemq/server=default/jms-topic=myTopic:pause()

A number of additional commands to maintain the Jakarta Messaging subsystem are available as well:

[standalone@localhost:9990 /] jms-queue --help --commands
add
...
remove
To read the description of a specific command execute 'jms-queue command_name --help'.

7.8.5. Dead Letter & Redelivery

Some of the settings are applied against an address wild card instead of a specific messaging destination. The dead letter queue and redelivery settings belong into this group:

<subsystem xmlns="urn:jboss:domain:messaging-activemq:1.0">
   <server name="default">
      [...]
      <address-setting name="#"
                       dead-letter-address="jms.queue.DLQ"
                       expiry-address="jms.queue.ExpiryQueue"
                       [...] />

~(See standalone/configuration/standalone-full.xml)~

7.8.6. Security Settings for Artemis addresses and Jakarta Messaging destinations

Security constraints are matched against an address wildcard, similar to the DLQ and redelivery settings.

<subsystem xmlns="urn:jboss:domain:messaging-activemq:1.0">
   <server name="default">
      [...]
      <security-setting name="#">
          <role name="guest"
                send="true"
                consume="true"
                create-non-durable-queue="true"
                delete-non-durable-queue="true"/>

~(See standalone/configuration/standalone-full.xml)~

7.8.7. Security Domain for Users

By default, Artemis will use the " ApplicationDomain`" Elytron security domain. This domain is used to authenticate users making connections to Artemis and then they are authorized to perform specific functions based on their role(s) and the `security-settings described above. This domain can be changed by using the security-domain, e.g.:

<subsystem xmlns="urn:jboss:domain:messaging-activemq:1.0">
   <server name="default">
       <security elytron-domain="mySecurityDomain" />
      [...]

7.8.8. Cluster Authentication

If the Artemis server is configured to be clustered, it will use the cluster 's user and password attributes to connect to other Artemis nodes in the cluster.

If you do not change the default value of <cluster-password>, Artemis will fail to authenticate with the error:

HQ224018: Failed to create session: HornetQExceptionerrorType=CLUSTER_SECURITY_EXCEPTION message=HQ119099: Unable to authenticate cluster user: HORNETQ.CLUSTER.ADMIN.USER

To prevent this error, you must specify a value for <cluster-password>. It is possible to encrypt this value by as an encrypted expression by referring to the Elytron documentation.

Alternatively, you can use the system property jboss.messaging.cluster.password to specify the cluster password from the command line.

7.8.9. Deployment of -jms.xml files

Starting with WildFly 26, you have the ability to deploy a -jms.xml file defining Jakarta Messaging destinations, e.g.:

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<messaging-deployment xmlns="urn:jboss:messaging-activemq-deployment:1.0">
   <server name="default">
      <jms-destinations>
         <jms-queue name="sample">
            <entry name="jms/queue/sample"/>
            <entry name="java:jboss/exported/jms/queue/sample"/>
         </jms-queue>
      </jms-destinations>
   </server>
</messaging-deployment>
This feature is primarily intended for development as destinations deployed this way can not be managed with any of the provided management tools (e.g. console, CLI, etc).

7.8.10. Jakarta Messaging Bridge

The function of a Jakarta Messaging bridge is to consume messages from a source Jakarta Messaging destination, and send them to a target Jakarta Messaging destination. Typically either the source or the target destinations are on different servers. The bridge can also be used to bridge messages from other non Artemis messaging servers, as long as they are JMS 1.1 compliant.

The Jakarta Messaging Bridge is provided by the Artemis project. For a detailed description of the available configuration properties, please consult the project documentation.

Modules for other messaging brokers

Source and target Jakarta Messaging resources (destination and connection factories) are looked up using JNDI. If either the source or the target resources are managed by another messaging server than WildFly, the required client classes must be bundled in a module. The name of the module must then be declared when the Jakarta Messaging Bridge is configured.

The use of a Jakarta Messaging bridges with any messaging provider will require to create a module containing the jar of this provider.

Let’s suppose we want to use an hypothetical messaging provider named AcmeMQ. We want to bridge messages coming from a source AcmeMQ destination to a target destination on the local WildFly messaging server. To lookup AcmeMQ resources from JNDI, 2 jars are required, acmemq-1.2.3.jar, mylogapi-0.0.1.jar (please note these jars do not exist, this is just for the example purpose). We must not include a Jakarta Messaging jar since it will be provided by a WildFly module directly.

To use these resources in a Jakarta Messaging bridge, we must bundle them in a WildFly module:

in JBOSS_HOME/modules, we create the layout:

modules/
`-- org
    `-- acmemq
        `-- main
            |-- acmemq-1.2.3.jar
            |-- mylogapi-0.0.1.jar
            `-- module.xml

We define the module in module.xml:

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<module xmlns="urn:jboss:module:1.9" name="org.acmemq">
    <properties>
        <property name="jboss.api" value="private"/>
    </properties>
 
 
    <resources>
        <!-- insert resources required to connect to the source or target   -->
        <!-- messaging brokers if it not another WildFly instance           -->
        <resource-root path="acmemq-1.2.3.jar" />
        <resource-root path="mylogapi-0.0.1.jar" />
    </resources>
 
 
    <dependencies>
       <!-- add the dependencies required by messaging Bridge code                -->
       <module name="javax.api" /> <!-- deprecated -->
       <module name="javax.jms.api" />
       <module name="javax.transaction.api"/>
       <module name="org.jboss.remote-naming"/>
       <!-- we depend on org.apache.activemq.artemis module since we will send messages to  -->
       <!-- the Artemis server embedded in the local WildFly instance       -->
       <module name="org.apache.activemq.artemis" />
    </dependencies>
</module>
Configuration

A Jakarta Messaging bridge is defined inside a jms-bridge section of the messaging-activemq subsystem in the XML configuration files.

<subsystem xmlns="urn:jboss:domain:messaging-activemq:1.0">
   <jms-bridge name="myBridge" module="org.acmemq">
      <source connection-factory="ConnectionFactory"
              destination="sourceQ"
              user="user1"
              password="pwd1"
              quality-of-service="AT_MOST_ONCE"
              failure-retry-interval="500"
              max-retries="1"
              max-batch-size="500"
              max-batch-time="500"
              add-messageID-in-header="true">
         <source-context>
            <property name="java.naming.factory.initial"
                      value="org.acmemq.jndi.AcmeMQInitialContextFactory"/>
            <property name="java.naming.provider.url"
                      value="tcp://127.0.0.1:9292"/>
         </source-context>
      </source>
      <target connection-factory"/jms/invmTargetCF"
              destination="/jms/targetQ" />
      </target>
   </jms-bridge>
</subsystem>

The source and target sections contain the name of the Jakarta Messaging resource ( connection-factory and destination) that will be looked up in JNDI. It optionally defines the user and password credentials. If they are set, they will be passed as arguments when creating the Jakarta Messaging connection from the looked up ConnectionFactory. It is also possible to define JNDI context properties in the source-context and target-context sections. If these sections are absent, the Jakarta Messaging resources will be looked up in the local WildFly instance (as it is the case in the target section in the example above).

Management commands

A Jakarta Messaging Bridge can also be managed using the WildFly command line interface:

[standalone@localhost:9990 /] /subsystem=messaging/jms-bridge=myBridge/:add(module="org.acmemq",
      source-destination="sourceQ",
      source-connection-factory="ConnectionFactory",
      source-user="user1",
      source-password="pwd1",
      source-context={"java.naming.factory.initial" => "org.acmemq.jndi.AcmeMQInitialContextFactory",
                      "java.naming.provider.url" => "tcp://127.0.0.1:9292"},
      target-destination="/jms/targetQ",
      target-connection-factory="/jms/invmTargetCF",
      quality-of-service=AT_MOST_ONCE,
      failure-retry-interval=500,
      max-retries=1,
      max-batch-size=500,
      max-batch-time=500,
      add-messageID-in-header=true)
{"outcome" => "success"}

You can also see the complete Jakarta Messaging Bridge resource description from the CLI:

[standalone@localhost:9990 /] /subsystem=messaging/jms-bridge=*/:read-resource-description
{
    "outcome" => "success",
    "result" => [{
        "address" => [
            ("subsystem" => "messaging"),
            ("jms-bridge" => "*")
        ],
        "outcome" => "success",
        "result" => {
            "description" => "A Jakarta Messaging bridge instance.",
            "attributes" => {
                ...
        }
    }]
}
Statistics of a Jakarta Messaging Bridge

Currently two statistics are available on a Jakarta Messaging bridge: the number of processed messages and the number of aborted/rolled back messages. Those are available with the following command :

/subsystem=messaging/jms-bridge=myBridge:read-attribute(name=message-count)
{
    "outcome" => "success",
    "result" => 0L
}

/subsystem=messaging/jms-bridge=myBridge:read-attribute(name=aborted-message-count)
{
    "outcome" => "success",
    "result" => 0L
}

7.8.11. Component Reference

The messaging-activemq subsystem is provided by the Artemis project. For a detailed description of the available configuration properties, please consult the project documentation.

Controlling internal broker usage of memory and disk space

You can configure the disk space usage of the journal by using the global-max-disk-usage attribute, thus blocking the paging and processing of new messages until some disk space is available. This is done from the CLI:

[standalone@localhost:9990 /] /subsystem=messaging-activemq/server=default:write-attribute(name=global-max-disk-usage, value=70)
{
    "outcome" => "success",
    "response-headers" => {
        "operation-requires-reload" => true,
        "process-state" => "reload-required"
    }
}

You can define at which frequency the disk usage is checked using the disk-scan-period attribute.

In the same way configure the maximal memory affected to processing messages by using the global-max-memory-size attribute, thus blocking the processing of new messages until some memory space is available. This is done from the CLI:

[standalone@localhost:9990 /] /subsystem=messaging-activemq/server=default:write-attribute(name=global-max-memory-size, value=960000000)
{
    "outcome" => "success",
    "response-headers" => {
        "operation-requires-reload" => true,
        "process-state" => "reload-required"
    }
}
Critical analysis of the broker

When things go wrong on the broker, the critical analyzer may act as a safeguard shutting down the broker or the JVM.
If the response time goes beyond a configured timeout, the broker is considered unstable and an action can be taken to either shutdown the broker or halt the VM. Currently in WildFly this will only be logged but you can change that behaviour by setting the critical-analyzer-policy attribute to HALT or SHUTDOWN. For this, the critical analyzer measures the response time in:

  • Queue delivery (adding to the queue)

  • Journal storage

  • Paging operations

You can configure the critical analyzer on the broker using the CLI. To disable the critical analyzer, you can execute the following CLI command:

[standalone@localhost:9990 /] /subsystem=messaging-activemq/server=default:write-attribute(name=critical-analyzer-enabled, value=false)
{
    "outcome" => "success",
    "response-headers" => {
        "operation-requires-reload" => true,
        "process-state" => "reload-required"
    }
}

You can configure the critical analyzer with the following attributes:

  • critical-analyzer-enabled

  • critical-analyzer-timeout

  • critical-analyzer-check-period

  • critical-analyzer-policy

Importing / Exporting the Journal

WildFly provides an operation to export the journal to a file which MUST be run in admin-mode. This is done from the CLI:

[standalone@localhost:9990 /] /subsystem=messaging-activemq/server=default:export-journal()
{
    "outcome" => "success",
    "result" => "$JBOSS_HOME/standalone/data/activemq/journal-20210125-103331692+0100-dump.xml"
}

You can now import such a dump file, in normal mode, using the command:

[standalone@localhost:9990 /] /subsystem=messaging-activemq/server=default:import-journal(file=$FILE_PATH/journal-20210125-103331692+0100-dump.xml)
{
    "outcome" => "success"
}

If you need to troubleshoot the journal you can use the print-data operation. Like the export operation, it needs to be executed in admin-mode. Also this will send back a file so it must be coupled with the attachment operation to display or save the result. Note that the display operation won’t work properly if you are asking for a zipped version of the data.

[standalone@localhost:9990 /] attachment display --operation=/subsystem=messaging-activemq/server=default:print-data(secret)
ATTACHMENT a69b87f3-ffeb-4596-be51-d73ebdc48b66:
     _        _               _
    / \  ____| |_  ___ __  __(_) _____
   / _ \|  _ \ __|/ _ \  \/  | |/  __/
  / ___ \ | \/ |_/  __/ |\/| | |\___ \
 /_/   \_\|   \__\____|_|  |_|_|/___ /
 Apache ActiveMQ Artemis 2.16.0

 ....

7.8.12. Connect a pooled-connection-factory to a Remote Artemis Server

The messaging-activemq subsystem allows to configure a pooled-connection-factory resource to let a local client deployed in WildFly connect to a remote Artemis server.

The configuration of such a pooled-connection-factory is done in 3 steps:

  1. create an outbound-socket-binding pointing to the remote messaging server:

    /socket-binding-group=standard-sockets/remote-destination-outbound-socket-binding=remote-artemis:add(host=<server host>, port=61616)
  2. create a remote-connector referencing the outbound-socket-binding created at step (1).

    /subsystem=messaging-activemq/remote-connector=remote-artemis:add(socket-binding=remote-artemis)
  3. create a pooled-connection-factory referencing the remote-connector created at step (2).

    /subsystem=messaging-activemq/pooled-connection-factory=remote-artemis:add(connectors=[remote-artemis], entries=[java:/jms/remoteCF])

In Artemis 1.x topics and queues used had a prefix(jms.topic. and jms.queue.) that were prepended to the destination name. In Artemis 2.x this is no longer the case, but for compatibility reasons WildFly still prepend those prefixes and tells Artemis to run in compatibility mode. If you are connecting to a remote Artemis 2.x, it may not be in compatibility mode and thus the old prefixes may not be used anymore. If you need to use destinations without those prefixes, you can configure your connection factory not to use them by setting the attribute enable-amq1-prefix to false.

/subsystem=messaging-activemq/pooled-connection-factory=remote-artemis:write-attribute(name="enable-amq1-prefix", value="false")
Jakarta Messaging Queues and Topics on a remote Artemis Server

You can also add queues and topics defined on a remote Artemis server to be used as if they were local to the server. This means that you can make those remote destinations available viza JNDI just like local destinations. Those destinations are defined out-of the server element:

<subsystem xmlns="urn:jboss:domain:messaging-activemq:1.0">
    <external-jms-queue name="testQueue"
               entries="jms/queue/test java:jboss/exported/jms/queue/test" />
    <external-jms-topic name="testTopic"
               entries="jms/topic/test java:jboss/exported/jms/topic/test" />
</subsystem>

Jakarta Messaging endpoints can easily be created through the CLI:

[standalone@localhost:9990 /] /subsystem=messaging-activemq/external-jms-queue=myQueue:read-resource
{
    "outcome" => "success",
    "result" => {
        "entries" => ["queues/myQueue"]
    }
}

You don’t have operations to see or manage attributes of those destinations.

Configuration of a MDB using a pooled-connection-factory

When a pooled-connection-factory is configured to connect to a remote Artemis, it is possible to configure Message-Driven Beans (MDB) to have them consume messages from this remote server.

The MDB must be annotated with the @ResourceAdapter annotation using the name of the pooled-connection-factory resource

import org.jboss.ejb3.annotation.ResourceAdapter;
 
  @ResourceAdapter("remote-artemis")
  @MessageDriven(name = "MyMDB", activationConfig = {
    ...
})
public class MyMDB implements MessageListener {
      public void onMessage(Message message) {
       ...
    }
}

If the MDB needs to produce messages to the remote server, it must inject the pooled-connection-factory by looking it up in JNDI using one of its entries.

@Inject
@JMSConnectionFactory("java:/jms/remoteCF")
private JMSContext context;
Configuration of the destination

A MDB must also specify which destination it will consume messages from.

The standard way is to define a destinationLookup activation config property that corresponds to a JNDI lookup on the local server.
When the MDB is consuming from a remote Artemis server it will now create those bindings locally.
It is possible to use the naming subsystem to configure external context federation to have local JNDI bindings delegating to external bindings.

However there is a simpler solution to configure the destination when using the Artemis Resource Adapter.
Instead of using JDNI to lookup the Jakarta Messaging Destination resource, you can just specify the name of the destination (as configured in the remote Artemis server) using the destination activation config property and set the useJNDI activation config property to false to let the Artemis Resource Adapter create automatically the Jakarta Messaging destination without requiring any JNDI lookup.

@ResourceAdapter("remote-artemis")
@MessageDriven(name = "MyMDB", activationConfig = {
    @ActivationConfigProperty(propertyName = "useJNDI",         propertyValue = "false"),
    @ActivationConfigProperty(propertyName = "destination",     propertyValue = "myQueue"),
    @ActivationConfigProperty(propertyName = "destinationType", propertyValue = "javax.jms.Queue"),
    @ActivationConfigProperty(propertyName = "acknowledgeMode", propertyValue = "Auto-acknowledge")
})
public class MyMDB implements MessageListener {
    ...
}

These properties configure the MDB to consume messages from the Jakarta Messaging Queue named myQueue hosted on the remote Artemis server.
In most cases, such a MDB does not need to lookup other destinations to process the consumed messages and it can use the JMSReplyTo destination if it is defined on the message.
If the MDB needs any other Jakarta Messaging destinations defined on the remote server, it must use client-side JNDI by following the Artemis documentation or configure external configuration context in the naming subsystem (which allows to inject the Jakarta Messaging resources using the @Resource annotation).

[[configuration of a remote destination using annotations]] ==== Configuration of a remote destination using annotations

The annotation @JMSDestinationDefinition can be used to create a destination on a remote Artemis Server. This will work in the same way as for a local server.+ For this it needs to be able to access Artemis management queue. If your remote Artemis Server management queue is not the default one you can pass the management queue address as a property to the @JMSDestinationDefinition. Please note that the destination is created remotely but won’t be removed once the deployement is undeployed/removed.

@JMSDestinationDefinition(
    // explicitly mention a resourceAdapter corresponding to a pooled-connection-factory resource to the remote server
    resourceAdapter = "activemq-ra",
    name="java:global/env/myQueue2",
    interfaceName="javax.jms.Queue",
    destinationName="myQueue2",
        properties = {
            "management-address=my.management.queue",
            "selector=color = 'red'"
       }
)

7.8.13. Backward & Forward Compatibility

WildFly supports both backwards and forwards compatibility with legacy versions that were using HornetQ as their messaging brokers (such as JBoss AS7 or WildFly 8 and 9).
These two compatibility modes are provided by the ActiveMQ Artemis project that supports HornetQ’s CORE protocol:

  • backward compatibility: WildFly messaging clients (using Artemis) can connect to a legacy app server (running HornetQ)

  • forward compatibility: legacy messaging clients (using HornetQ) can connect to a WildFly 26 app server (running Artemis).

Forward Compatibility

Forward compatibility requires no code change in legacy messaging clients. It is provided by the WildFly messaging-activemq subsystem and its resources.

  • legacy-connection-factory is a subresource of the messaging-activemq’s `server and can be used to store in JNDI a HornetQ-based ConnectionFactory.

<subsystem xmlns="urn:jboss:domain:messaging-activemq:1.0"><server name="default">
        ...
        <legacy-connection-factory name="legacyConnectionFactory-discovery"
                                   entries="java:jboss/exported/jms/RemoteConnectionFactory"
                                   ... />
    </server>
</subsystem>
  • Legacy HornetQ-based messaging destinations can also be configured by providing a legacy-entries attribute to the jms-queue and jms-topic resource.

    <jms-queue name="myQueue"
               entries="java:jboss/exported/jms/myQueue-new"
               legacy-entries="java:jboss/exported/jms/myQueue" />
    <jms-topic name="testTopic"
               entries="java:jboss/exported/jms/myTopic-new"
               legacy-entries="java:jboss/exported/jms/myTopic" />

The legacy-entries must be used by legacy clients (using HornetQ) while the regular entries are for WildFly 26 Jakarta Messaging clients (using Artemis).

The legacy client will then lookup these legacy messaging resources to communicate with WildFly.
To avoid any code change in the legacy messaging clients, the legacy JNDI entries must match the lookup expected by the legacy client.

Migration

During migration, the legacy messaging subsystem will create a legacy-connection-factory resource and add legacy-entries to the jms-queue and jms-topic resource if the boolean attribute add-legacy-entries is set to true for its migrate operation. If that is the case, the legacy entries in the migrated messaging-activemq subsystem will correspond to the entries specified in the legacy messaging subsystem and the regular entries will be created with a -new suffix.
If add-legacy-entries is set to false during migration, no legacy resources will be created in the messaging-activemq subsystem and legacy messaging clients will not be able to communicate with WildFly 26 servers.

Backward Compatibility

Backward compatibility requires no configuration change in the legacy server.
WildFly 26 clients do not look up resources on the legacy server but use client-side JNDI to create their Jakarta Messaging resources. WildFly’s Artemis client can then use these resources to communicate with the legacy server using the HornetQ CORE protocol.

Artemis supports Client-side JNDI to create Jakarta Messaging resources ( ConnectionFactory and Destination).

For example, if a WildFly 26 messaging client wants to communicate with a legacy server using a queue named myQueue, it must use the following properties to configure its JNDI InitialContext:

java.naming.factory.initial=org.apache.activemq.artemis.jndi.ActiveMQInitialContextFactory
connectionFactory.jms/ConnectionFactory=tcp://<legacy server address>:5445? \
    protocolManagerFactoryStr=org.apache.activemq.artemis.core.protocol.hornetq.client.HornetQClientProtocolManagerFactory
queue.jms/myQueue=myQueue

It can then use the jms/ConnectionFactory name to create the Jakarta Messaging ConnectionFactory and jms/myQueue to create the Jakarta Messaging Queue.
Note that the property protocolManagerFactoryStr=org.apache.activemq.artemis.core.protocol.hornetq.client.HornetQClientProtocolManagerFactory is mandatory when specifying the URL of the legacy connection factory so that the Artemis JMS client can communicate with the HornetQ broker in the legacy server.

7.8.14. AIO - NIO for messaging journal

Apache ActiveMQ Artemis (like HornetQ beforehand) ships with a high performance journal. Since Apache ActiveMQ Artemis handles its own persistence, rather than relying on a database or other 3rd party persistence engine it is very highly optimised for the specific messaging use cases. The majority of the journal is written in Java, however we abstract out the interaction with the actual file system to allow different pluggable implementations.

Apache ActiveMQ Artemis ships with two implementations:

  • Java NIO.

The first implementation uses standard Java NIO to interface with the file system. This provides extremely good performance and runs on any platform where there’s a Java 6+ runtime.

  • Linux Asynchronous IO

The second implementation uses a thin native code wrapper to talk to the Linux asynchronous IO library (AIO). With AIO, Apache ActiveMQ Artemis will be called back when the data has made it to disk, allowing us to avoid explicit syncs altogether and simply send back confirmation of completion when AIO informs us that the data has been persisted.

Using AIO will typically provide even better performance than using Java NIO.

The AIO journal is only available when running Linux kernel 2.6 or later and after having installed libaio (if it’s not already installed). If AIO is not supported on the system then Artemis will fallback to NIO. To know which type of journal is effectively used you can execute the following command using jboss-cli:

/subsystem=messaging-activemq/server=default:read-attribute(name=runtime-journal-type)

Please note that AIO is represented by ASYNCIO in the WildFly model configuration.

Also, please note that AIO will only work with the following file systems: ext2, ext3, ext4, jfs, xfs. With other file systems, e.g. NFS it may appear to work, but it will fall back to a slower synchronous behaviour. Don’t put the journal on a NFS share!

One point that should be added is that AIO doesn’t work well with encrypted partitions, thus you have to move to NIO on those.

What are the symptoms of an AIO isssue ?

AIO issue on WildFly 10

If you see the following exception in your WildFly log file / console

[org.apache.activemq.artemis.core.server] (ServerService Thread Pool -- 64) AMQ222010: Critical IO Error, shutting down the server. file=AIOSequentialFile:/home/wildfly/wildfly-10.0.0.Final/standalone/data/activemq/journal/activemq-data-2.amq, message=Cannot open file:The Argument is invalid: java.io.IOException: Cannot open file:The Argument is invalid
 at org.apache.activemq.artemis.jlibaio.LibaioContext.open(Native Method)

that means that AIO isn’t working properly on your system.

To use NIO instead execute the following command using jboss-cli:

/subsystem=messaging-activemq/server=default:write-attribute(name=journal-type, value=NIO)

You need to reload or restart your server and you should see the following trace in your server console :

INFO  [org.apache.activemq.artemis.core.server] (ServerService Thread Pool -- 64) AMQ221013: Using NIO Journal
AIO issue on WildFly 9
[org.hornetq.core.server] (ServerService Thread Pool -- 64) HQ222010: Critical IO Error, shutting down the server. file=AIOSequentialFile:/home/wildfly/wildfly-9.0.2.Final/standalone/data/messagingjournal/hornetq-data-1.hq, message=Can't open file: HornetQException[errorType=NATIVE_ERROR_CANT_OPEN_CLOSE_FILE message=Can't open file]
 at org.hornetq.core.libaio.Native.init(Native Method)

that means that AIO isn’t working properly on your system.

To use NIO instead execute the following commnd using jboss-cli :

/subsystem=messaging/hornetq-server=default:write-attribute(name=journal-type,value=NIO)

You need to reload or restart your server and you see the following trace in your server console :

INFO  [org.hornetq.core.server] (ServerService Thread Pool -- 64) HQ221013: Using NIO Journal

7.8.15. JDBC Store for Messaging Journal

The Artemis server that are integrated to WildFly can be configured to use a JDBC store for its messaging journal instead of its file-based journal.
The server resource of the messaging-activemq subsystem needs to configure its journal-datasource attribute to be able to use JDBC store. If this attribute is not defined, the regular file-base journal will be used for the Artemis server.
This attribute value must correspond to a data source defined in the datasource subsystem.

For example, if the datasources subsystem defines an ExampleDS data source at /subsystem=datasources/data-source=ExampleDS, the Artemis server can use it for its JDBC store with the operation:

/subsystem=messaging-activemq/server=default:write-attribute(name=journal-datasource, value=ExampleDS)

Artemis JDBC store uses SQL commands to create the tables used to persist its information.
These SQL commands may differ depending on the type of database. The SQL commands used by the JDBC store are located in modules/system/layers/base/org/apache/activemq/artemis/main/artemis-jdbc-store-${ARTEMIS_VERSION}.jar/journal-sql.properties.

Artemis uses different JDBC tables to store its bindings information, the persistent messages and the large messages (paging is not supported yet).

The name of these tables can be configured with the journal-bindings-table, journal-messages-table, journal-page-store-table, and journal-large-messages-table.

Please note that the configuration of the underlying pool is something that you need to take care of. You need at least four connections:

  • one for the binding

  • one for the messages journal

  • one for the lease lock (if you use HA)

  • one for the node manager shared state (if you use HA)

So you should define a min-pool-size of 4 for the pool.
But one fact that you need to take into account is that paging and large messages can use an unbounded number of threads. The size, a.k.a. max-pool-size, of the pool should be defined according to the amount of concurrent threads that perform page/large message streaming operations. There is no defined rule for this as there is no 1-1 relation between the number of threads and the number of connections. The number of connections depend on the number of threads processing paging and large messages operations as well as the time you are willing to wait to get a connection (cf. blocking-timeout-wait-millis). When new large messages or paging operations occur they will be in a dedicated thread and will try to get a connection, being enqueued until one is ready or the time to obtain one runs out which will create a failure.
You really need to tailor your configuration according to your needs and test it in your environment following the DataSource configuration subsystem documentation and perform tests and peroformance runs before going to production.

Reference

7.8.16. Configuring Broadcast/Discovery

Each Artemis server can be configured to broadcast itself and/or discovery other Artemis servers within a cluster. Artemis supports two mechanisms for configuring broadcast/discovery:

JGroups-based broadcast/discovery

Artemis can leverage the membership of an existing JGroups channel to both broadcast its identity and discover nodes on which Artemis servers are deployed. WildFly’s default full-ha profile uses this mechanism for broadcast/discovery using the default JGroups channel of the server (as defined by the JGroups subsystem).

To add this support to a profile that does not include it by default, use the following:

[standalone@localhost:9990 /] /subsystem=messaging-activemq/server=default/broadcast-group=bg-group1:add(jgroups-cluster=activemq-cluster,connectors=http-connector)
[standalone@localhost:9990 /] /subsystem=messaging-activemq/server=default/discovery-group=dg-group1:add(jgroups-cluster=activemq-cluster)

To segregate Artemis servers use a distinct membership, configure broadcast/discovery using a separate channel. To do this, first create the channel resource:

[standalone@localhost:9990 /] /subsystem=jgroups/channel=messaging:add(stack=tcp)

This creates a new JGroups channel resource based on the "tcp" protocol stack. Now create your broadcast/discovery groups using this channel:

[standalone@localhost:9990 /] /subsystem=messaging-activemq/server=default/broadcast-group=bg-group2:add(jgroups-channel=messaging, jgroups-cluster=activemq-cluster, connectors=http-connector)
[standalone@localhost:9990 /] /subsystem=messaging-activemq/server=default/discovery-group=dg-group2:add(jgroups-channel=messaging, jgroups-cluster=activemq-cluster)
Multicast broadcast/discovery

To broadcast identity to standalone messaging clients, you can additionally configure broadcast/discovery using multicast sockets.

e.g.

[standalone@localhost:9990 /] /socket-binding-group=standard-sockets/socket-binding=messaging(interface=private, multicast-address=230.0.0.4, multicast-port=45689)

[standalone@localhost:9990 /] /subsystem=messaging-activemq/server=default/broadcast-group=bg-group3:add(socket-binding=messaging, connectors=http-connector)
[standalone@localhost:9990 /] /subsystem=messaging-activemq/server=default/discovery-group=dg-group3:add(socket-binding=messaging)
Cluster behind an HTTP load balancer

If the cluster is behind an HTTP load balancer we need to indicate to the clients that they must not use the cluster topology to connect to it but keep on using the initial connection to the load-balancer. For this you need to specify on the (pooled) connection factory not to use the topology by setting the attribute "use-topology-for-load-balancing" to false.

/subsystem=messaging-activemq/pooled-connection-factory=remote-artemis:write-attribute(name="use-topology-for-load-balancing", value="false")
Network Isolation (Split Brain)

It is possible that if a replicated live or backup server becomes isolated in a network that failover will occur and you will end up with 2 live servers serving messages in a cluster, this we call split brain. You main mitigate this problem by configuring one or more addresses that are part of your network topology, that will be pinged through the life cycle of the server.

The server will stop itself until the network is back on such case. This is configured using the following configuration attributes:

  • network-check-NIC: The NIC (Network Interface Controller) to be used to validate the network.

  • network-check-period: The frequency of how often we should check if the network is still up.

  • network-check-timeout: The timeout used on the ping.

  • network-check-list: This is a comma separated list, no spaces, of DNS or IPs (it should accept IPV6) to be used to validate the network.

  • network-check-URL-list: The list of HTTP URIs to be used to validate the network.

  • network-check-ping-command: The command used to ping IPV4 addresses.

  • network-check-ping6-command: The command used to ping IPV6 addresses.

For example, let’s ping the 10.0.0.1 IP address:

[standalone@localhost:9990 /]
/subsystem=messaging-activemq/server=default:write-attribute(name=network-check-list, value="10.0.0.1")

Once 10.0.0.1 stops responding to the ping you will get an exception and the broker will stop:

WARN  [org.apache.activemq.artemis.logs] (ServerService Thread Pool -- 84) AMQ202002: Ping Address /10.0.0.1 wasnt reacheable.
...
INFO  [org.apache.activemq.artemis.logs] (Network-Checker-0 (NetworkChecker)) AMQ201001: Network is unhealthy, stopping service ActiveMQServerImpl::serverUUID=76e64326-f78e-11ea-b7a5-3ce1a1c35439
Warning

Make sure you understand your network topology as this is meant to validate your network. Using IPs that could eventually disappear or be partially visible may defeat the purpose. You can use a list of multiple IPs. Any successful ping will make the server OK to continue running

7.9. Transactions subsystem configuration

Required extension:

<extension module="org.jboss.as.transactions"/>

Basic subsystem configuration example:

<subsystem xmlns="urn:jboss:domain:transactions:6.0">
  <core-environment node-identifier="${jboss.tx.node.id:1}">
    <process-id>
      <uuid/>
    </process-id>
  </core-environment>
  <recovery-environment socket-binding="txn-recovery-environment"
                        status-socket-binding="txn-status-manager"/>
   <coordinator-environment statistics-enabled="${wildfly.transactions.statistics-enabled:${wildfly.statistics-enabled:false}}"/>
  <object-store path="tx-object-store"
                relative-to="jboss.server.data.dir"/>
</subsystem>

7.9.1. Transaction subsystem configuration

Transaction subsystem configures the behaviour of the transaction manager. Narayana is the transaction manager used in WildFly. The second component configured within the subsystem is WildFly Transaction Client (the WFTC serves as an abstract layer to work with the transactional context).

Configuration of Narayana component

The structure of the transaction subsystem follows the structure of Narayana component. Narayana defines a separate configuration bean for every internal module. For example any configuration related to Narayana core is available through beans CoordinatorEnvironmentBean and CoreEnvironmentBean, for JTA processing it is JTAEnvironmentBean, for the transaction recovery setup it’s RecoveryEnvironmentBean.

The transaction subsystem provides only a sub-set of the configuration available via Narayana beans. Any other configuration option provided by Narayana is still possible to be configured via system properties and JVM restart is usually required.

Narayana defines unified naming for the system properties which are used for configuration. The system property is in form [bean name].[property name]. For example, the system property with name RecoveryEnvironmentBean.periodicRecoveryInitilizationOffset configures a waiting time for first time execution of the periodic recovery after application server starts.

Configuration in model and in XML

The transaction subsystem separates the configuration into sections in XML configuration file. Every section belongs to some Narayana module. The configuration for model consists, on the other hand, of a flat structure of attributes (most of them at top level).

For example, the subsystem defines the node identifier under core-environment XML element in XML configuration, while the node-identifer attribute is defined directly under /subsystem=transactions resource in the model.

The description of individual attributes and their meaning can be found in the Model Reference Guide.

jts

jts model attribute is configured as jts XML element

XML configuration enabling jts
<subsystem xmlns="urn:jboss:domain:transactions:6.0">
  ...
  <jts />
  ...
</subsystem>
core-environment

node-identifier, process-id-uuid, process-id-socket-binding, process-id-socket-max-ports model attributes are configured under core-environment XML element

XML configuration example for core-environment
<subsystem xmlns="urn:jboss:domain:transactions:6.0">
  ...
  <core-environment node-identifier="1">
    <process-id>
      <socket socket-binding="txn-socket-id"
              socket-process-id-max-ports="10"/>
      </process-id>
  </core-environment>
  ...
</subsystem>
recovery-environment

recovery-period, socket-binding, recovery-listener, status-socket-binding model attributes are configured under recovery-environment XML element

XML configuration example for recovery-environment
<subsystem xmlns="urn:jboss:domain:transactions:6.0">
  ...
  <recovery-environment socket-binding="txn-recovery-environment"
                        status-socket-binding="txn-status-manager"
                        recovery-listener="false" />
  ...
</subsystem>

If you configure the recovery-listener then Narayana binds the linked socket, and a user may request an explicit launch of the recovery scan. We can see an example of the socket communication in the following example.

telnet communication with recovery listener
telnet localhost 4712
# command to start the recovery scan
SCAN[enter]
# at this time the transaction recovery has been started
^]
close
coordinator-environment

enable-tsm-status, statistics-enabled, default-timeout, maximum-timeout model attributes are configured under coordinator-environment XML element

XML configuration example for coordinator-environment
<subsystem xmlns="urn:jboss:domain:transactions:6.0">
  ...
  <coordinator-environment enable-tsm-status="true" statistics-enabled="true"
                           default-timeout="300" maximum-timeout="31536000" />
  ...
</subsystem>
transaction statistics

When subsystem defines the statistics-enabled to true Narayana starts gathering statistics about transaction processing. User can view a single attribute or list all statistics attributes as a group. Transaction statistics attributes are read-only runtime attributes.

observing all transaction statistics attributes
# connect to a running application server
./bin/jboss-cli.sh -c

# enable transaction statistics
/subsystem=transactions:write-attribute(name=statistics-enabled, value=true)
# list all statistics attributes
/subsystem=transactions:read-attribute-group(name=statistics, include-runtime=true)
object-store

Narayana needs to persist data about transaction processing to a transaction log. This persistent storage is called object store in context of Narayana. Narayana requires to persist a log for an XA transactions that are processed with the two-phase commit protocol. Otherwise, the transaction is held only in memory without storing anything to the object store.

Narayana provides three object stores implementations.

  • ShadowNoFileLock store persists records in directory structure on the file system. A separate file represents an record, log of a prepared transaction.
    Used when attributes use-jdbc-store and use-journal-store are both false.

  • Journal store persists records in a journal file on the file system. Records are stored in append only log implemented within ActiveMQ Artemis project.
    Used when attribute use-journal-store is true and use-jdbc-store is false.

  • JDBC stores persists records in a database. The records are accessible via JDBC connection. This store requires a linked datasource from the datasources subsystem. Used when attribute use-jdbc-store is true and use-journal-store is false.

journal object-store

An XML configuration of object-store XML element configuring the journal store with model attributes object-store-path, object-store-relative-to, journal-store-enable-async-io is

XML configuration example for object-store
<subsystem xmlns="urn:jboss:domain:transactions:6.0">
  ...
    <object-store path="tx-object-store" relative-to="jboss.server.data.dir"/>
    <use-journal-store enable-async-io="true"/>
  ...
</subsystem>
JDBC object-store

JDBC implementation makes the transaction log to be persisted into a database. Transaction subsystem accesses the database via linked (via JNDI) non-transactional (jta=false) datasource. When the transaction subsystem configures the JDBC store implementation then the Transaction Manager creates one or few database tables (if they do not exist) to persist transaction data when WildFly starts. Narayana creates a separate table for each store type. Narayana uses the store type to grouping transaction records of the same type.

Narayana uses the following store types in WildFly

  • action store stores data for JTA transactions

  • state store stores data for TXOJ objects

  • communications store stores data for monitoring remote JTS transactions and storing CORBA IOR’s

Attributes configuration may define a prefix for each store type. When we configure no prefix, or the same prefix for all store types then Narayana saves the transaction data into the same database table. By default, Narayana persists transaction log in database table named JBossTSTxTable.

jboss cli example to setup JDBC object store
# PostgreSQL driver module
./bin/jboss-cli.sh "embed-server, module add --name=org.postgresql --resources=/tmp/postgresql.jar \
  --dependencies=javax.api\,javax.transaction.api"

# non-jta PostgreSQL datasource creation
./bin/jboss-cli.sh "embed-server --server-config=standalone.xml,data-source add --name=JDBCStore \
  --jndi-name=java:jboss/datasources/jdbcstore_postgresql --jta=false \
  --connection-url=jdbc:postgresql://localhost:5432/test --user-name=test --password=test \
  --driver-name=postgresql"

# transaction subsystem configuration
./bin/jboss-cli.sh "embed-server --server-config=standalone.xml, \
  /subsystem=transactions:write-attribute(name=jdbc-store-datasource, \
  value=java:jboss/datasources/jdbcstore_postgresql), \
  /subsystem=transactions:write-attribute(name=use-jdbc-store,value=true)"
./bin/jboss-cli.sh "embed-server --server-config=standalone.xml, \
  /subsystem=transactions:write-attribute(name=jdbc-state-store-table-prefix,value=state), \
  /subsystem=transactions:write-attribute(name=jdbc-state-store-drop-table,value=false),
  /subsystem=transactions:write-attribute(name=jdbc-communication-store-table-prefix,value=communication), \
  /subsystem=transactions:write-attribute(name=jdbc-communication-store-drop-table,value=false),
  /subsystem=transactions:write-attribute(name=jdbc-action-store-table-prefix,value=action), \
  /subsystem=transactions:write-attribute(name=jdbc-action-store-drop-table,value=false)"
XML configuration example for JDBC object-store
<subsystem xmlns="urn:jboss:domain:transactions:6.0">
  ...
    <jdbc-store datasource-jndi-name="java:jboss/datasources/jdbcstore_postgresql">
        <action table-prefix="action" drop-table="false"/>
        <communication table-prefix="communication" drop-table="false"/>
        <state table-prefix="state" drop-table="false"/>
    </jdbc-store>
  ...
</subsystem>
commit-markable-resources

Makes possible for a database non-XA datasource (i.e., a local resource) to reliably participate in an XA transaction in the two-phase commit processing. The datasource has to be configured with connectable attribute of value true and linked to transaction subsystem as a commit markable resource (CMR).

As a prerequisite the database must contain a table named xids (the database table name can be configured with attribute name under commit-markable-resource) where Narayana persists additional metadata when two-phase commit prepares the non-XA datasource.

The SQL select that has to be working for xids table can be found in the Narayana code.

example of SQL statement to create the xids table to store CMR metadata
-- PostgreSQL
CREATE TABLE xids (
  xid bytea, transactionManagerID varchar(64), actionuid bytea
);
CREATE UNIQUE INDEX index_xid ON xids (xid);

-- Oracle
CREATE TABLE xids (
  xid RAW(144), transactionManagerID VARCHAR(64), actionuid RAW(28)
);
CREATE UNIQUE INDEX index_xid ON xids (xid);

-- H2
CREATE TABLE xids (
  xid VARBINARY(144), transactionManagerID VARCHAR(64), actionuid VARBINARY(28)
);
CREATE UNIQUE INDEX index_xid ON xids (xid);
example of CMR datasource configuration in subsystem
# parameter 'connectable' is true for datasource
./bin/jboss-cli.sh "embed-server --server-config=standalone.xml,\
  /subsystem=datasources/data-source=ConnectableCMRDs:add(enabled=true, \
  jndi-name=java:jboss/datasources/ConnectableCMRDs, jta=true, use-java-context=true, \
  use-ccm=true, connectable=true, connection-url=\"jdbc:h2:mem:test;DB_CLOSE_DELAY=-1;DB_CLOSE_ON_EXIT=FALSE\", \
  driver-name=h2)"

# linking the datasource into the transaction subsystem
./bin/jboss-cli.sh "embed-server --server-config=standalone.xml,\
  /subsystem=transactions/commit-markable-resource=\"java:jboss/datasources/ConnectableCMRDs\":add"
./bin/jboss-cli.sh "embed-server --server-config=standalone.xml, \
  /subsystem=transactions/commit-markable-resource=\"java:jboss/datasources/ConnectableCMRDs\":write-attribute(name=name, value=xids), \
  /subsystem=transactions/commit-markable-resource=\"java:jboss/datasources/ConnectableCMRDs\":write-attribute(name=batch-size, value=10), \  /subsystem=transactions/commit-markable-resource=\"java:jboss/datasources/ConnectableCMRDs\":write-attribute(name=immediate-cleanup, value=false)"
XML configuration example for commit-markable-resources
<subsystem xmlns="urn:jboss:domain:transactions:6.0">
  ...
  <commit-markable-resources>
    <commit-markable-resource jndi-name="java:jboss/datasources/ConnectableCMRDs">
      <xid-location name="xids" batch-size="10"/>
    </commit-markable-resource>
  </commit-markable-resources>
  ...
</subsystem>
log-store

log-store is a runtime only resource that can be loaded with a snapshot of the content of the Narayana object store. The operation /subsystem=transactions/log-store=log-store:probe loads persisted transaction records from object store and that can be viewed in the model. Another :probe operation flushes the old data and loads up-to-date records.

explore the snapshot of the Narayana object store
/subsystem=transactions/log-store=log-store:probe
/subsystem=transactions/log-store=log-store:read-resource(recursive=true, include-runtime=true)

The resulted listing will be similar to the following one. In this case we can see one transaction with one participant with status PREPARED.

{
  "outcome" => "success",
  "result" => {
    "expose-all-logs" => false,
    "type" => "default",
    "transactions" => {"0:ffffc0a80065:-22769d16:60c87436:1a" => {
      "age-in-seconds" => "48",
      "id" => "0:ffffc0a80065:-22769d16:60c87436:1a",
      "jmx-name" => undefined,
      "type" => "StateManager/BasicAction/TwoPhaseCoordinator/AtomicAction",
      "participants" => {"1" => {
        "eis-product-name" => undefined,
        "eis-product-version" => undefined,
        "jmx-name" => undefined,
        "jndi-name" => "1",
        "status" => "PREPARED",
        "type" => "/StateManager/AbstractRecord/XAResourceRecord"
      }}
    }}
  }
}

The same content listed as a directory structure when we configure ShadowNoFileLock store

tree standalone/data/tx-object-store/
standalone/data/tx-object-store/
└── ShadowNoFileLockStore
    └── defaultStore
        ├── EISNAME
        │   └── 0_ffffc0a80065_-22769d16_60c87436_14
        └── StateManager
            └── BasicAction
                └── TwoPhaseCoordinator
                    └── AtomicAction
                        └── 0_ffffc0a80065_-22769d16_60c87436_1a
log-store transactions and participant operations

The transactions and participant resources contains several operations that can be used to work with the content of the object store.

  • delete Removes the transaction record from the object store and calls the XAResource.forget call at all participants.

  • refresh Reloads information from the Narayana object store about the participant and updates the information from object store to model.

  • recover This operation switches the participant status to PREPARED. This is useful mostly for HEURISTIC participant records as HEURISTIC state is skipped by period recovery processing. Switching the HEURISTIC to PREPARED means that the periodic recovery will try to finish the record.

operations at log-store transactions structure
# delete of the transaction that subsequently deletes all participants
/subsystem=transactions/log-store=log-store/transactions=0\:ffffc0a80065\:-22769d16\:60c87436\:1a:delete
# delete of the particular participant
/subsystem=transactions/log-store=log-store/transactions=0\:ffffc0a80065\:-22769d16\:60c87436\:1a/participants=1:delete
# refresh and recover
/subsystem=transactions/log-store=log-store/transactions=0\:ffffc0a80065\:-22769d16\:60c87436\:1a/participants=1:refresh
/subsystem=transactions/log-store=log-store/transactions=0\:ffffc0a80065\:-22769d16\:60c87436\:1a/participants=1:recover
client

Configuration related to the WildFly Transaction Client.

XML configuration example for client
<subsystem xmlns="urn:jboss:domain:transactions:6.0">
  ...
  <client stale-transaction-time="600"/>
  ...
</subsystem>

7.10. Metrics Subsystem Configuration

This subsystem exposes only base metrics from the WildFly Management Model and JVM MBeans.

Support for MicroProfile Metrics is provided by the microprofile-metrics-smallrye subsystem.

7.10.1. Extension

This org.wildfly.extension.metrics extension is included in all the standalone configurations included in the WildFly distribution as well as the metrics layer.

You can also add the extension to a configuration without it either by adding an <extension module="org.wildfly.extension.metrics"/> element to the xml or by using the following CLI operation:

[standalone@localhost:9990 /] /extension=org.wildfly.extension.metrics:add

7.10.2. Management Model

The /subsystem=metrics resource defines three attributes:

  • security-enabled - a boolean to indicate whether authentication is required to access the HTTP metrics endpoint (described below). By default, it is true. The standalone configurations explicitly sets it to false to accept unauthenticated access to the HTTP endpoints.

  • exposed-subsystems - a list of strings corresponding to the names of subsystems that exposes their metrics in the HTTP metrics endpoints. By default, it is not defined (there will be no metrics exposed by subsystem. The special wildcard "" can be used to expose metrics from all subsystems. The standalone configuration sets this attribute to "".

  • prefix - A string to prepend to WildFly metrics that are exposed by the HTTP endpoint /metrics with the Prometheus output format.

7.10.3. HTTP Endpoint

The Metric HTTP endpoint is accessible on WildFly HTTP management interface http://localhost:9990/metrics.

Secured access to the HTTP endpoint is controlled by the security-enabled attribute of the /subsystem=metrics resource. If it is set to true, the HTTP client must be authenticated.

If security is disabled, the HTTP endpoint returns a 200 OK response:

$ curl -v http://localhost:9990/metrics
< HTTP/1.1 200 OK
...
# HELP base_classloader_total_loaded_class_count Displays the total number of classes that have been loaded since the Java virtual machine has started execution
.
# TYPE base_classloader_total_loaded_class_count counter
base_classloader_total_loaded_class_count 10822.0
...

If security has been enabled, the HTTP client must pass the credentials corresponding to a management user created by the add-user script. For example:

$ curl -v --digest -u myadminuser:myadminpassword http://localhost:9990/metrics
< HTTP/1.1 200 OK
...
# HELP base_classloader_total_loaded_class_count Displays the total number of classes that have been loaded since the Java virtual machine has started execution
.
# TYPE base_classloader_total_loaded_class_count counter
base_classloader_total_loaded_class_count 10822.0
...

If the authentication fails, the server will reply with a 401 NOT AUTHORIZED response.

7.10.4. Exposed Metrics

The HTTP endpoint exposes the following metrics:

  • Base metrics - Metrics from JVM MBeans (read from their JMX MBeans)

  • Vendor metrics - WildFly Metrics from the management model subsystem and deployment subtrees.

The HTTP endpoint exposes the metrics in the Prometheus format only.

WildFly Metrics Description

WildFly metrics names are based on the subsystem that provides them as well as the name of the attribute from the management model. Their name can also be prepended with a prefix (specified on the /subsystem=metrics resource). Other information is stored using labels.

For example Undertow exposes a metric attribute request-count for every Servlet in an application deployment. This attribute will be exposed to Prometheus with the name wildfly_undertow_request_count. Other information such as the name of the Servlet are added to the labels of the metrics.

The [helloworld-rs quickstart](https://github.com/wildfly/quickstart/tree/master/helloworld-rs) creates a Jakarta RESTful Web Services application that can be deployed in WildFly. A corresponding metric will be exposed for it with the name and labels:

  • wildfly_undertow_request_count_total{deployment="helloworld-rs.war",servlet="org.jboss.as.quickstarts.rshelloworld.JAXActivator",subdeployment="helloworld-rs.war"}

Some subsystems (such as undertow or messaging-activemq) do not enable their statistics by default as they have an impact on performance and memory usage. These subsystems provides a statistics-enabled attribute that must be set to true to enable them. For convenience, WildFly standalone configuration provides expressions to enable the statistics by setting a System property -Dwildfly.statistics-enabled=true to enable statistics on the subsystems provided by the configuration.

7.11. OpenTelemetry Subsystem Configuration

7.11.1. Extension

This extension is not included in any of the standalone configurations included in the WildFly distribution. To enable, the administrator must run the following CLI commands:

 $ jboss-cli.sh -c "/extension=org.wildfly.extension.opentelemetry:add()"
 $ jboss-cli.sh -c "/subsystem=opentelemetry:add()"

7.11.2. Configuration

Systems administrators can configure a number of aspects of OpenTelemetry: the exporter, span processor, and sampler.

Exporter

The exporter can be selected and configured using the exporter child element, which supports these attributes:

  • exporter: WildFly supports two different exporters:

    • jaeger: The default exporter

    • otlp: The OpenTelemetry protocol

  • endpoint: The URL via which OpenTelemetry will push traces. The default is Jaeger’s gRPC-based endpoint, http://localhost:14250

Span Processor

The span process is configured via the span-processor element, which supports the following attributes:

  • type: The type of span processor to use.

    • batch: The default processor, which sends traces in batches as configured via the remaining attributes

    • simple: Traces are pushed to the exporter as they finish.

  • batch-delay: The amount of time, in milliseconds, to wait before traces are published (default: 5000)

  • max-queue-size: The maximum size of the queue before traces are dropped (default: 2048)

  • max-export-batch-size: The maximum number of traces that are published in each batch, which must be smaller or equal to `max-queue-size (default: 512)

  • export-timeout: The maximum amount of time in milliseconds to allow for an export to complete before being cancelled (default: 30000)

Sampler

The sampler is configured via the sampler element:

  • type: The type of sampler to use

    • on: Always on (all traces are recorded)

    • off: Always off (no traces are recorded)

    • ratio: Return a ratio of the traces (e.g., 1 trace in 10000).

  • ratio: The value used to configure the ratio sampler, which must be within [0.0, 1.0].For example, if 1 trace in 10,000 is to be exported, this value would be 0.0001.

Example Configuration

The following XML is an example of the full configuration, including default values (WildFly does not typically persist default values, so what you see in the configuration file may look different):

<subsystem xmlns="urn:wildfly:opentelemetry:1.0"
        service-name="example">
    <exporter
        type="jaeger"
        endpoint="http://localhost:14250"/>
    <span-processor
        type="batch"
        batch-delay="4500"
        max-queue-size="128"
        max-export-batch-size="512"
        export-timeout="45"/>
    <sampler
        type="on"/>
</subsystem>

7.11.3. Application Usage

All incoming REST requests are automatically traced, so no work needs be done in user applications.If a REST request is received and the OpenTelemetry context propagation header (traceparent) is present, the request will traced as part of the remote trace context automatically.

Likewise, all Jakarta REST Client calls will have the trace context added to outgoing request headers so that requests to external applications can be traced correctly (assuming the remote system properly handles OpenTelemetry trace context propagation).If the REST Client call is made to another application on the local WildFly server, or a remote server of the same version or later, the trace context will propagate automatically as described above.

While automatic tracing may be sufficient in many cases, it will often be desirable to have traces occur throughout the user application.To support that, WildFly makes available the io.opentelemetry.api.OpenTelemetry and io.opentelemetry.api.trace.Tracer instances, via CDI injection.A user application, then is able to create arbitrary spans as part of the server-managed trace:

@Path("/myEndpoint")
public class MyEndpoint {
    @Inject
    private Tracer tracer;

    @GET
    public Response doSomeWork() {
        final Span span = tracer.spanBuilder("Doing some work")
                .startSpan();
        span.makeCurrent();
        doSomeMoreWork();
        span.addEvent("Make request to external system.");
        makeExternalRequest();
        span.addEvent("All the work is done.");
        span.end();

        return Response.ok().build();
}

7.11.4. Interaction with MicroProfile OpenTracing

If you have the MicroProfile OpenTracing subsystem enabled (e.g., via the MicroProfile configuration), you may see duplicate traces exported for JAX-RS calls, for example. This is because both OpenTracing and OpenTelemetry have instrumented the endpoints to enable tracing, and both subsystems are configured to export traces to a collector such as Jaeger. Likely, this is not desirable, so if you would like to use OpenTelemetry for tracing, it is advisable to remove the OpenTracing subsystem:

 $ jboss-cli.sh -c "/subsystem=microprofile-opentracing-smallrye:remove()"
 $ jboss-cli.sh -c "/extension=org.wildfly.extension.microprofile.opentracing-smallrye:remove()"

If you leave both subsystems enabled, though, WildFly will continue to function normally. The only difference you will see is the duplicate trace export mentioned above.

7.11.5. Component Reference

OpenTelemetry support is provided via the OpenTelemetry project.

7.12. Health Subsystem Configuration

This subsystem exposes only healthiness checks for the WildFly runtime. Support for MicroProfile Health is provided by the microprofile-health-smallrye subsystem.

7.12.1. Extension

This org.wildfly.extension.health extension is included in all the standalone configurations included in the WildFly distribution as well as the health layer.

You can also add the extension to a configuration without it either by adding an <extension module="org.wildfly.extension.health"/> element to the xml or by using the following CLI operation:

[standalone@localhost:9990 /] /extension=org.wildfly.extension.health:add

7.12.2. Management Model

The /subsystem=health resource defines one attribute:

  • security-enabled - a boolean to indicate whether authentication is required to access the HTTP health endpoint (described below). By default, it is true. The standalone configurations explicitly sets it to false to accept unauthenticated access to the HTTP endpoints.

7.12.3. HTTP Endpoint

The Health HTTP endpoint is accessible on the WildFly HTTP management interface http://localhost:9990/health.

The health subsystem registers three HTTP endpoints:

  • /health to test both the liveness and readiness of the application server.

  • /health/live to test the liveness of the application server

  • /health/ready to test the readiness of the application server.

  • /health/started to test the startup of the application server.

The Health HTTP endpoints are accessible on the WildFly HTTP management interface (e.g. http://localhost:9990/health).

If the application server is healthy, it will return a 200 OK response:

$ curl -v http://localhost:9990/health
< HTTP/1.1 200 OK

If the application server is not healthy, it returns 503 Service Unavailable

$ curl -v http://localhost:9990/health
< HTTP/1.1 503 Service Unavailable
Secured Access to the HTTP endpoints

Secured access to the HTTP endpoint is controlled by the security-enabled attribute. If it is set to true, the HTTP client must be authenticated.

If security has been enabled, the HTTP client must pass the credentials corresponding to a management user created by the add-user script. For example:

$ curl -v --digest -u myadminuser:myadminpassword http://localhost:9990/health
< HTTP/1.1 200 OK

If the authentication fails, the server will reply with a 401 NOT AUTHORIZED response.

The HTTP response contains additional information with individual outcomes for each probe that determined the healthiness. This is informational only and the HTTP response code is the only relevant data to determine the healthiness of the application server.
Default Server Procedures

WildFly provides some readiness procedures that are checked to determine if the application server is ready to serve requests:

  • boot-errors checks that there were no errors during the server boot sequence

  • deployments-status checks that all deployments were deployed without errors

  • server-state checks that the server state is running

7.13. MicroProfile Config Subsystem Configuration

Support for MicroProfile Config is provided by the microprofile-config-smallrye subsystem.

7.13.1. Required Extension

This extension is included in the standard configurations included in the WildFly distribution.

You can also add the extension to a configuration without it either by adding an <extension module="org.wildfly.extension.microprofile.config-smallrye"/> element to the xml or by using the following CLI operation:

[standalone@localhost:9990 /] /extension=org.wildfly.extension.microprofile.config-smallrye:add

7.13.2. Supported ConfigSources

In addition to the default ConfigSources specified by the MicroProfile Config specification (environment variables, System properties and META-INF/microprofile-config.properties file), the microprofile-config-smallrye provides additional types of ConfigSource

ConfigSource from Properties

You can store properties directly in a config-source in the subsystem by using the properties attribute when you add the config-source:

/subsystem=microprofile-config-smallrye/config-source=props:add(properties={"prop1" = "foo", "prop2" = "bar"})

This results in the XML configuration:

<subsystem xmlns="urn:wildfly:microprofile-config-smallrye:1.0">
    <config-source name="props">
        <property name="prop1" value="foo"/>
        <property name="prop2" value="bar"/>
    </config-source>
</subsystem>
ConfigSource from Directory

You can also read properties from a directory where each file is the name of a property and the file content is the value of the property.

For example, let’s imagine that the directory /etc/config/numbers-app/ contains 2 files:

  • the num.size file contains the value 5

  • the num.max file contains the value 100

We can create a config-source` to access these properties by using the operation:

/subsystem=microprofile-config-smallrye/config-source=file-props:add(dir={path=/etc/config/numbers-app})

This results in the XML configuration:

<subsystem xmlns="urn:wildfly:microprofile-config-smallrye:1.0">
    <config-source name="file-props">
        <dir path="/etc/config/numbers-app"/>
    </config-source>
</subsystem>

With that configuration, any application deployed in WildFly can use the num.size and num.max properties that are stored in the directory:

@Inject
@ConfigProperty(name = "num.size")
int numSize; (1)

@Inject
@ConfigProperty(name = "num.max")
int numMax; (2)
1 will be set to 5
2 will be set to 100
This corresponds to the layout used by OpenShift ConfigMaps. The dir value corresponds to the mountPath in the ConfigMap definition in OpenShift or Kubernetes.
ConfigSource from Class

You can create a specific type of ConfigSource implementation by creating a config-source resource with a class attribute.

For example, you can provide an implementation of org.eclipse.microprofile.config.spi.ConfigSource that is named org.example.MyConfigSource and provided by a JBoss module named org.example:

/subsystem=microprofile-config-smallrye/config-source=my-config-source:add(class={name=org.example.MyConfigSource, module=org.example})

This results in the XML configuration:

<subsystem xmlns="urn:wildfly:microprofile-config-smallrye:1.0">
    <config-source name="my-config-source">
        <class name="org.example.MyConfigSource" module="org.example"/>
    </config-source>
</subsystem>

All properties from this ConfigSource will be available to any WildFly deployment.

ConfigSourceProvider from Class

You can create a specific type of ConfigSourceProvider implementation by creating a config-source-provider resource with a class attribute.

For example, you can provide an implementation of org.eclipse.microprofile.config.spi.ConfigSourceProvider that is named org.example.MyConfigSourceProvider and provided by a JBoss module named org.example:

/subsystem=microprofile-config-smallrye/config-source-provider=my-config-source-provider:add(class={name=org.example.MyConfigSourceProvider, module=org.example})

This results in the XML configuration:

<subsystem xmlns="urn:wildfly:microprofile-config-smallrye:1.0">
    <config-source-provider name="my-config-source-provider">
         <class name="org.example.MyConfigSourceProvider" module="org.example"/>
    </config-source-provider>
</subsystem>

All properties from the ConfigSource`s provided by this `ConfigSourceProvider will be available to any WildFly deployment.

7.13.3. Deployment

Applications that are deployed in WildFly must have Jakarta Contexts and Dependency Injection enabled (e.g. with a META-INF/beans.xml or by having Jakarta Contexts and Dependency Injection Bean annotation) to be able to use MicroProfile Config in their code.

7.13.4. Component Reference

The MicroProfile Config implementation is provided by the SmallRye Config project.

7.14. MicroProfile Health Subsystem Configuration

Support for MicroProfile Health is provided by the microprofile-health-smallrye subsystem.

7.14.1. Required Extension

This extension is included in the standalone-microprofile configurations included in the WildFly distribution.

You can also add the extension to a configuration without it either by adding an <extension module="org.wildfly.extension.microprofile.health-smallrye"/> element to the xml or by using the following CLI operation:

[standalone@localhost:9990 /]/extension=org.wildfly.extension.microprofile.health-smallrye:add

It depends on the base health extension org.wildfly.extension.health that must be installed.

7.14.2. Management Operations

The healthiness of the application server can be queried by calling 3 different operations:

  • check to check both the liveness and readiness of the runtime

  • check-live to check only the liveness of the runtime

  • check-ready to check only the readiness of the runtime

  • check-started to check only the startup of the runtime

[standalone@localhost:9990 /] /subsystem=microprofile-health-smallrye:check
{
    "outcome" => "success", (1)
    "result" => {
        "status" => "UP", (2)
        "checks" => [
            {
                "name" => "server-state",
                "status" => "UP",
                "data" => {"value" => "running"}
            },
            {
                "name" => "empty-startup-checks",
                "status" => "UP"
            },
            {
                "name" => "empty-readiness-checks",
                "status" => "UP"
            },
            {
                "name" => "boot-errors",
                "status" => "UP"
            },
            {
                "name" => "empty-liveness-checks",
                "status" => "UP"
            },
            {
                "name" => "deployments-status",
                "status" => "UP"
            }
        ]
    }
}
1 this outcome means that the management operation is successful
2 this status corresponds to the health check, UP if the application server is healthy, DOWN else.

7.14.3. HTTP Endpoints

The MicroProfile Health Check specifications defines three HTTP endpoints:

  • /health to test both the liveness and readiness of the application server.

  • /health/live to test the liveness of the application server

  • /health/ready to test the readiness of the application server.

  • /health/started to test the startup of the application server.

The Health HTTP endpoints are accessible on WildFly HTTP management interface (e.g. http://localhost:9990/health).

If the application server is healthy, it will return a 200 OK response:

$ curl -v http://localhost:9990/health
< HTTP/1.1 200 OK
...
{"status":"UP","checks":[{"name":"server-state","status":"UP","data":{"value":"running"}},{"name":"empty-startup-checks","status":"UP"},{"name":"empty-readiness-checks","status":"UP"},{"name":"boot-errors","status":"UP"},{"name":"empty-liveness-checks","status":"UP"},{"name":"deployments-status","status":"UP"}]}

If the application server is not healthy, it returns 503 Service Unavailable

$ curl -v http://localhost:9990/health
< HTTP/1.1 503 Service Unavailable
...
{"outcome":"DOWN","checks":[{"name":"myFailingProbe","state":"DOWN","data":{"foo":"bar"}}]}
Secured Access to the HTTP endpoints

Secured access to the HTTP endpoint is controlled by the security-enabled attribute of the /subsystem=microprofile-health-smallrye resource. The value of this attribute will override the security-enabled attribute of the /subsystem=health resource (documented in Health subsystem configuration guide). If it is set to true, the HTTP client must be authenticated.

If security has been enabled, the HTTP client must pass the credentials corresponding to a management user created by the add-user script. For example:

$ curl -v --digest -u myadminuser:myadminpassword http://localhost:9990/health
< HTTP/1.1 200 OK
...
{"status":"UP","checks":[{"name":"empty-liveness-checks","status":"UP"},{"name":"server-state","status":"UP","data":{"value":"running"}},{"name":"boot-errors","status":"UP"},{"name":"deployments-status","status":"UP"},{"name":"empty-readiness-checks","status":"UP"}]}

If the authentication fails, the server will reply with a 401 NOT AUTHORIZED response.

Default Server Procedures

WildFly provides some readiness procedures that are checked to determine if the application server is ready to serve requests:

  • boot-errors checks that there were no errors during the server boot sequence

  • deployments-status checks that all deployments were deployed without errors

  • server-state checks that the server state is running

  • empty-readiness-checks determines the status when there are no readiness check procedures deployed to the server. The outcome of this procedure is determined by the empty-readiness-checks-status attribute. If the attribute is UP (by default), the server can be ready when there are no readiness checks in the deployments. Setting the empty-readiness-checks-status attribute to DOWN will make this procedure fail when there are no readiness checks in the deployments.

If a deployment does not provide any readiness checks, WildFly will automatically add one for each deployment (named ready-<deployment name>) which always returns UP.

This allows applications that does not provide readiness checks to still be able to inform cloud containers when they are ready to serve requests. Setting empty-readiness-checks-status to DOWN ensures that the server will not be ready until the application is deployed. At that time, the ready-<deployment name> will be added (which returns UP) and the empty-readiness-checks procedure will no longer be checked as there is now a readiness check procedure provided either by the deployment or by the server.

WildFly also provide a liveness procedure that is checked to determine if the application server is live:

  • empty-liveness-checks determines the status when there are no liveness check procedures deployed to the server. The outcome of this procedure is determined by the empty-liveness-checks-status attribute. If the attribute is UP (by default), the server can be live when there are no liveness checks in the deployments. Setting the empty-liveness-checks-status attribute to DOWN will make this procedure fail when there are no liveness checks in the deployments.

WildFly also provides a similar procedure for what concerns startup checks:

  • empty-startup-checks determines the status when there are no startup check procedures deployed to the server. The outcome of this procedure is determined by the empty-startup-checks-status attribute. If the attribute is UP (by default), the server can be ready when there are no startup checks in the deployments. Setting the empty-startup-checks-status attribute to DOWN will make this procedure fail when there are no readiness checks in the deployments.

If a deployment does not provide any startup checks, WildFly will automatically add one for each deployment (named started-<deployment name>) which always returns UP.

This allows applications that does not provide startup checks to still be able to inform cloud containers when they are started to proceed with the container start. Setting empty-startup-checks-status to DOWN ensures that the server will not be ready until the application is deployed. At that time, the started-<deployment name> will be added (which returns UP) and the empty-startup-checks procedure will no longer be checked as there is now a startup check procedure provided either by the deployment or by the server.

Disabling Default Server Procedures

It is possible to disable all these server procedures by using the MicroProfile Config property mp.health.disable-default-procedures.

The MicroProfile Config property mp.health.disable-default-procedures is read at 2 different times:

  1. When the server starts, to determine if its server procedures should be disabled or enabled. It can be set using the system property mp.health.disable-default-procedures or the environment variable MP_HEALTH_DISABLE_DEFAULT_PROCEDURES. Setting this property in a deployment is ignored at that time.

  2. When an application is deployed, to determine if WildFly should add a readiness check if the deployment does not provide any. At that time, setting this property in a microprofile-config.properties file in the deployment would be taken into account. (with the usual priority rules for MicroProfile Config properties).

When the mp.health.disable-default-procedures is set to true the server will not return any of its health checks in the responses which involve also the default empty configurable checks included before the deployments are processed, namely empty-readiness-checks, empty-startup-checks, and empty-liveness-checks. This means that the server might prematurely respond with invalid UP response particularly to startup and readiness invocations before the user deployment is processed. For this reason, MicroProfile Health specification defines two MicroProfile Config properties that specify the response returned while the server is still processing deployments, i.e. it returns an empty health response:

  • mp.health.default.readiness.empty.response (default DOWN) that specifies empty readiness response. This response will be switched to UP once the user deployment is processed even if it doesn’t contain any readiness checks. Otherwise, it will be switched to the status set by the user readiness checks.

  • mp.health.default.startup.empty.response (default DOWN) that specifies empty startup response. This response will be switched to UP once the user deployment is processed even if it doesn’t contain any startup checks. Otherwise, it will be switched to the status set by the user startup checks.

7.14.4. Component Reference

The MicroProfile Health implementation is provided by the SmallRye Health project.

7.15. MicroProfile JWT Subsystem Configuration

Support for MicroProfile JWT RBAC is provided by the microprofile-jwt-smallrye subsystem.

The MicroProfile JWT specification describes how authentication can be performed using cryptographically signed JWT tokens and the contents of the token to be used to establish a resuting identity without relying on access to external repositories of identities such as databases or directory servers.

7.15.1. Subsystem

The MicroProfile JWT integration is provided by the microprofile-jwt-smallrye subsystem and is included in the default configuration, if not present the subsystem can be added using the following CLI commands.

[standalone@localhost:9990 /] /extension=org.wildfly.extension.microprofile.jwt-smallrye:add

[standalone@localhost:9990 /] /subsystem=microprofile-jwt-smallrye:add

At this point the server would need to be reloaded to activate the change.

7.15.2. Configuration

The microprofile-jwt-smallrye subsystem contains no configurable attributes or resources, it’s presence is required however to detect if a deployment is making use of the MP-JWT authentication mechanism and to activate support for JWT making use of the SmallRye JWT project.

Activation

The subsystem will scan all deployments to detect if the MP-JWT mechanism is required for any web components and if true activate the integration and the authentication mechanism.

The classes in the deployment will be scanned to identify if there is a class which extends javax.ws.rs.core.Application annotated with the org.eclipse.microprofile.auth.LoginConfig to specify an auth-method. Additionally the auth-method contained within the deployments web.xml will be checked.

If authentication configuration is defined within the @LoginConfig annotation and within the web.xml deployment descriptor the contents of the web.xml are given precedence.

If after evaluating the deployment the resulting auth-method is MP-JWT then this integration will be activated, in all other cases no activation will occur and deployment will continue as normal.

MicroProfile Config

For an individual deployment the configuration in relation to MicroProfile JWT can be provided using MicroProfile Config properties, many are defined within the MicroProfile JWT specification however SmallRye JWT also supports some additional properties.

Standard Properties
Property Default Description

mp.jwt.verify.publickey

NONE

String representation of the public key encoded using one of the supported formats. Must not be set at the same time as mp.jwt.verify.publickey.

mp.jwt.verify.publickey.location

NONE

The location of the public key, may be a relative path or URL. Must not be set at the same time as mp.jwt.verify.publickey.location.

mp.jwt.verify.issuer

NONE

The expected value of any iss claim of any JWT token being validated.

A minimal microprofile-config.properties could look like: -

mp.jwt.verify.publickey.location=META-INF/public.pem
mp.jwt.verify.issuer=quickstart-jwt-issuer
Unavailable Options

There are presently a couple of limitations with support for JWKS which we are looking to address.

  • If a JWKS is inlined using the mp.jwt.verify.publickey property then only the first key from the set will be used with the remainder being ignored.

  • Encoding of JWKS using Base64 is presently unsupported.

In both cases a clear text JWKS can be referenced instead using the mp.jwt.verify.publickey.location config property.

Support for Base64 encoded JWKS keys and inlined JWKS keys within the mp.jwt.verify.publickey property will be further evaluation and either support added or a contibution to the specification to remove these options.

SmallRye JWT Properties

The SmallRye JWT specific properties allow for a lot of customisation not covered by the specification, however as these are not specification defined they could be subject to change.

Property Default Description

smallrye.jwt.token.header

Authorization

The HTTP header to extract the token from.

smallrye.jwt.token.cookie

NONE

The name of the cookie to extract the token from, only applicable if smallrye.jwt.token.header is set to Cookie.

smallrye.jwt.token.kid

NONE

The expected kid value for any token being validated.

smallrye.jwt.require.named-principal

false

When set to true require any token being validated to contain at least one of sub, upn, preferred_user_name.

smallrye.jwt.claims.sub

NONE

The default value to use for any sub claim if omitted from the incoming token.

smallrye.jwt.path.sub

NONE

Path to the claim containing the sub claim, allows for nesting within an alternative claim.

smallrye.jwt.claims.groups

NONE

The default value for any groups claim if omitted from the incoming token.

smallrye.jwt.path.groups

NONE

Path to the claim containing the groups claim, allows for nesting within an alternative claim.

smallrye.jwt.groups-separator

{SPACE}

Where smallrye.jwt.path.groups references an alternative path the separator to split the value into distinct groups.

smallrye.jwt.expiration.grace

60

The grace period in seconds a token will be accepted after it’s expiration.

smallrye.jwt.jwks.refresh-interval

60

The refresh inerval where mp.jwt.verify.publickey.location points to a HTTPS location.

smallrye.jwt.whitelist.algorithms

RS256

List of supported algorithms.

smallrye.jwt.verify.aud

NONE

The expected audience values for a token.

7.15.3. Virtual Security

For traditional deployments to WildFly where security is required a security domain name would be identified during deployment and this in turn would be mapped to use configured resources either within the elytron or legacy security subsystems.

One of the main motivations for using MicroProfile JWT is the ability to describe an identity from the incoming token without relying on access to external resources. For this reason MicroProfile JWT deployments will not depend on managed SecurityDomain resources, instead a virtual SecurityDomain will be created and used across the deployment.

As the deployment is configured entirely within the MicroProfile Config properties other than the presence of the microprofile-jwt-smallrye subsystem the virtual SecurityDomain means no other managed configuration is required for the deployment.

7.16. MicroProfile Metrics Subsystem Configuration

Support for MicroProfile Metrics is provided by the microprofile-metrics-smallrye subsystem.

7.16.1. Required Extension

This extension is included in the standalone-microprofile configurations included in the WildFly distribution.

You can also add the extension to a configuration without it either by adding an <extension module="org.wildfly.extension.microprofile.metrics-smallrye"/> element to the xml or by using the following CLI operation:

[standalone@localhost:9990 /] /extension=org.wildfly.extension.microprofile.metrics-smallrye:add

It depends on the base metrics extension org.wildfly.extension.metrics that must be installed.

7.16.2. Management Model

The /subsystem=microprofile-metrics-smallrye resource defines two attributes:

  • exposed-subsystems - a list of strings corresponding to the names of subsystems that exposes their metrics in the HTTP metrics endpoints. By default, it is not defined (there will be no metrics exposed by subsystem. The special wildcard "" can be used to expose metrics from all subsystems. The standalone configuration sets this attribute to "".

  • prefix - A string to prepend to WildFly metrics that are exposed by the HTTP endpoint /metrics with the Prometheus output format.

7.16.3. HTTP Endpoint

The Metric HTTP endpoint is accessible on WildFly HTTP management interface http://localhost:9990/metrics.

Secured access to the HTTP endpoint is controlled by the security-enabled attribute of the /subsystem=microprofile-metrics-smallrye resource. The value of this attribute will override the security-enabled attribute of the /subsystem=metrics resource (documented in Metrics subsystem configuration guide).

When the microprofile.metrics-smallrye is installed, this HTTP endpoint will return metrics according to MicroProfile Metrics specification.

$ curl -v http://localhost:9990/metrics
< HTTP/1.1 200 OK
...
# HELP base:classloader_total_loaded_class_count Displays the total number of classes that have been loaded since the Java virtual machine has started execution
.
# TYPE base:classloader_total_loaded_class_count counter
base:classloader_total_loaded_class_count 10822.0
...

7.16.4. Exposed Metrics

The HTTP endpoint exposes the following metrics:

  • Base metrics - Required metrics specified in the MicroProfile 1.1 specification are exposed in the base scope.

  • Vendor metrics - Vendor-specific metrics (e.g. for memory pools)

  • Application metrics - Metrics from the application and from the deployment’s subsystems are exposed in the application scope.

The WildFly metrics (that measures activity in the subsystem or application deployments) are exposed only on the /metrics endpoint with the Prometheus format.

7.16.5. Component Reference

The MicroProfile Metrics implementation is provided by the SmallRye Metrics project.

7.17. MicroProfile OpenAPI Subsystem Configuration

The OpenAPI specification defines a contract for JAX-RS applications in the same way that WSDL defined a contract for legacy web services. The MicroProfile OpenAPI specification defines a mechanism for generating an OpenAPI v3 document from a JAX-RS application as well as an API for customizing production of the document.

7.17.1. Subsystem

The MicroProfile OpenAPI capability is provided by the microprofile-openapi-smallrye subsystem. This subsystem is included in the default standalone-microprofile.xml configuration of the WildFly distribution.

You can also add the subsystem manually to any profile via the CLI:

[standalone@localhost:9990 /] /extension=org.wildfly.extension.microprofile.openapi-smallrye:add()

[standalone@localhost:9990 /] /subsystem=microprofile-openapi-smallrye:add()

7.17.2. Configuration

The microprofile-openapi-smallrye subsytem obtains all of its configuration via MicroProfile Config. Thus the subsystem itself defines no attributes.

In addition to the standard Open API configuration properties, WildFly supports the following additional MicroProfile Config properties:

Property Default Description

mp.openapi.extensions.enabled

true

Enables/disables registration of an OpenAPI endpoint. Many users will want to parameterize this to selectively enable/disable OpenAPI in different environments.

mp.openapi.extensions.path

/openapi

Used to customize the path of the OpenAPI endpoint.

mp.openapi.extensions.servers.relative

true

Indicates whether auto-generated Server records are absolute or relative to the location of the OpenAPI endpoint. If absolute, WildFly will generate Server records including the protocols, hosts, and ports at which the given deployment is accessible.

e.g. /META-INF/microprofile-config.properties:

mp.openapi.extensions.enabled=${microprofile.openapi.enabled}
mp.openapi.extensions.path=/swagger
mp.openapi.extensions.servers.relative=false

7.17.3. HTTP/S Endpoint

The MicroProfile OpenAPI specification defines an HTTP endpoint that serves an OpenAPI 3.0 document describing the REST endpoints for the host. The OpenAPI endpoint is registered using the configured path (e.g. http://localhost:8080/openapi) local to the root of the host associated with a given deployment.

Currently, the OpenAPI endpoint for a given virtual host can only document a single JAX-RS deployment. To use OpenAPI with multiple JAX-RS deployments registered with different context paths on the same virtual host, each deployment should use a distinct endpoint path.

By default, the OpenAPI endpoint returns a YAML document. Alternatively, a JSON document can be requested via an Accept HTTP header, or a format query parameter.

e.g.

$ curl -v http://localhost:8080/openapi?format=JSON
< HTTP/1.1 200 OK
...
{"openapi": "3.0.1" ... }


$ curl -v -H'Accept: application/json' http://localhost:8080/openapi
< HTTP/1.1 200 OK
...
{"openapi": "3.0.1" ... }

If the Undertow server/host of a given application defines an HTTPS listener, then the OpenAPI document will also be available via HTTPS, e.g. https://localhost:8443/openapi

7.17.4. Component Reference

The MicroProfile OpenAPI implementation is provided by the SmallRye OpenAPI project.

References in this document to Java API for RESTful Web Services(JAX-RS) refer to Jakarta RESTful Web Services unless otherwise noted.

7.18. MicroProfile OpenTracing Subsystem Configuration

Support for MicroProfile OpenTracing is provided as a Tech Preview feature by the microprofile-opentracing-smallrye subsystem.

7.18.1. Required Extension

This extension is included in the standard configurations included in the WildFly distribution.

You can also add the extension to a configuration without it either by adding an <extension module="org.wildfly.extension.microprofile.opentracing-smallrye"/> element to the xml or by using the following CLI operation:

[standalone@localhost:9990 /] /extension=org.wildfly.extension.microprofile.opentracing-smallrye:add
{"outcome" => "success"}

[standalone@localhost:9990 /] /subsystem=microprofile-opentracing-smallrye:add
{
    "outcome" => "success",
    "response-headers" => {
        "operation-requires-reload" => true,
        "process-state" => "reload-required"
    }
}

7.18.2. Supported instrumentation libraries

WildFly’s MicroProfile OpenTracing subsystem implements MicroProfile 1.3, which includes support for tracing Jakarta RESTful Web Services and Jakarta Contexts and Dependency Injection.

Currently the subsystem allows the configuration of Jaeger Java Client. You can then specify which tracer to use in your deployment by specifying a smallrye.opentracing.tracer.configuration init-parameter in your deployment descriptor. If this value is wrong the deployment will fail. You can also set the default tracer to be injected by using the default-tracer attribute on the subsystem configuration.

Additionally, applications being deployed are able to provide their own tracers via the TracerResolver facility. In that case, the default tracer will not be used.

For compatibility if no tracer is defined in the subsystem and no tracer can be resolved, then a Jaeger Tracer instance will be created from the environment variables.

7.18.3. Configuring a Jaeger tracer

To add a new Jaeger tracer instance you can use the following CLI operation:

[standalone@localhost:9990 /] /subsystem=microprofile-opentracing-smallrye/jaeger-tracer=my-tracer:add()
{"outcome" => "success"}

Those are the configuration attributes:

  • propagation: The supported trace context propagation formats:

    • JAEGER: The default Jaeger trace context propagation format.

    • B3: The Zipkin B3 trace context propagation format.

  • sampler-type: The type of sampler to use in the tracer. Optional. Valid values: remote (default),ratelimiting, probabilistic, const.

  • sampler-param: The floating point value that makes sense for the correct samplerType.

  • sampler-manager-host-port: the port of the sampling manager that can provide sampling strategy to this service.

  • sender-binding: The outbound socket binding to connecto the Agent.

  • sender-endpoint: The endpoint, like https://jaeger-collector:14268/api/traces

  • sender-user: The Basic Auth username to be added on Authorization headers for requests sent to the endpoint.

  • sender-auth-password: The Basic Auth password to be added on Authorization headers for requests sent to the endpoint.

  • sender-auth-token: The Auth Token to be added as "Bearer" on Authorization headers for requests sent to the endpoint.

  • reporter-log-spans: Boolean to indicates whether the reporter should log the spans.

  • reporter-flush-interval: The flush interval when reporting spans remotely in milliseconds.

  • reporter-max-queue-size: The reporter’s maximum queue size.

  • tracer_id_128bit: Opt-in to use 128 bit traceIds. By default, uses 64 bits.

  • tracer-tags: A comma separated list of name = value tracer level tags, which get added to all reported spans. The value can also refer to an environment variable using the format ${envVarName:default}, where the :default is optional, and identifies a value to be used if the environment variable cannot be found.

By default, the service name used with the Jaeger Client is derived from the deployment’s name, which is usually the WAR file name.

As defined by the MicroProfile OpenTracing specification, Jakarta Contexts and Dependency Injection beans are traced if the annotation org.eclipse.microprofile.opentracing.Traced is present, either at the type or method level. Tracing can be disabled by setting the annotation’s value to false. Similarly, a custom operation name can be set by specifying the parameter operationName for that annotation. The semantics are ruled by the MicroProfile OpenTracing specification.

Note that Jakarta Contexts and Dependency Injection support for the deployment is required in order to activate the MicroProfile OpenTracing support. A simple Jakarta RESTful Web Services application with no Jakarta Contexts and Dependency Injection support will not be traced.

Managed beans with multiple facets, such as Jakarta Enterprise Beans, can also be traced by annotating them with @Traced, but with limitations. For instance, asynchronous invocations will yield a new trace, instead of having the span to join an existing trace.

7.18.4. Component Reference

The MicroProfile OpenTracing implementation is provided by the SmallRye OpenTracing project.

7.19. MicroProfile Fault Tolerance Subsystem Configuration

Support for MicroProfile Fault Tolerance is provided as by the microprofile-fault-tolerance-smallrye subsystem.

7.19.1. Required Extension

This extension is not included by default in the standard configurations in the WildFly distribution.

You can add the extension to a configuration without it either by adding an <extension module="org.wildfly.extension.microprofile.fault-tolerance-smallrye"/> element to the XML or by using the following CLI operation:

[standalone@localhost:9990 /] /extension=org.wildfly.extension.microprofile.fault-tolerance-smallrye:add()
{"outcome" => "success"}

[standalone@localhost:9990 /] /subsystem=microprofile-fault-tolerance-smallrye:add()
{
    "outcome" => "success",
    "response-headers" => {
        "operation-requires-reload" => true,
        "process-state" => "reload-required"
    }
}
[standalone@localhost:9990 /] reload

The subsystem does not have any configurable elements.

7.19.2. Specification

WildFly’s MicroProfile Fault Tolerance subsystem implements MicroProfile 3.0.

This MicroProfile specification provides the following interceptor bindings:

  • @Timeout

  • @Retry

  • @Fallback

  • @CircuitBreaker

  • @Bulkhead

  • @Asynchronous

For usage please refer to MicroProfile Fault Tolerance 3.0 specification.

7.19.3. Configuration

Apart from configuration properties defined by the specification, the SmallRye implementation provides the following configuration properties:

Table 3. SmallRye Fault Tolerance configuration properties
Name Default Description

io.smallrye.faulttolerance.mainThreadPoolSize

100

Maximum number of threads in the thread pool.

io.smallrye.faulttolerance.mainThreadPoolQueueSize

-1 (unbounded)

Size of the queue that the thread pool should use.

7.19.4. Component Reference

The MicroProfile Fault Tolerance implementation is provided by the SmallRye Fault Tolerance project.

7.20. MicroProfile Reactive Streams Operators Subsystem Configuration

Support for MicroProfile Reactive Streams Operators is provided as a Tech Preview feature by the microprofile-reactive-streams-operators-smallrye subsystem.

7.20.1. Required Extension

This extension is not included in the standard configurations included in the WildFly distribution.

You can add the extension to a configuration either by adding an <extension module="org.wildfly.extension.microprofile.reactive-streams-operators-smallrye"/> element to the xml or by using the following CLI operation:

[standalone@localhost:9990 /] /extension=org.wildfly.extension.microprofile.reactive-streams-operators-smallrye:add
{"outcome" => "success"}

[standalone@localhost:9990 /] /subsystem=microprofile-reactive-streams-operators-smallrye:add
{
    "outcome" => "success",
    "response-headers" => {
        "operation-requires-reload" => true,
        "process-state" => "reload-required"
    }
}

If you provision your own server and include the microprofile-reactive-streams-operators layer, you will get the required modules, and the extension and subsystem will be added to your configuration.

7.20.2. Specification

WildFly’s MicroProfile Reactive Streams Operators subsystem implements MicroProfile Reactive Streams Operators 2.0, which adds support for asynchronous streaming of data. It essentially replicates the the interfaces, and their implementations, that were made available in the java.util.concurrent.Flow class introduced in Java 9. Thus MicroProfile Reactive Streams Operators can be considered a stop-gap until Java 9 and later is ubiquitous.

7.20.3. Configuration

The microprofile-reactive-streams-operators-smallrye subsystem contains no configurable attributes or resources. Its presence makes the interfaces from the MicroProfile Reactive Streams Operators available to a deployment, and provides the implementation. Additionally it makes an instance of the ReactiveStreamsEngine class available for injection.

Activation

If the subsystem is present, the MicroProfile Reactive Streams Operators functionality will be available for all deployments on the server.

7.20.4. Component Reference

The MicroProfile Reactive Streams Operators implementation is provided by the SmallRye Mutiny project.

7.21. MicroProfile Reactive Messaging Subsystem Configuration

:smallrye-reactive-messaging-version:       3.6
:smallrye-reactive-messaging-tag:           {smallrye-reactive-messaging-version}.0
:eclipse-mp-reactive-messaging-api-version: 2.0

Support for MicroProfile Reactive Messaging is provided as a Tech Preview feature by the microprofile-reactive-messaging-smallrye subsystem.

7.21.1. Required Extension

This extension is not included in the standard configurations included in the WildFly distribution.

You can add the extension to a configuration either by adding an <extension module="org.wildfly.extension.microprofile.reactive-messaging-smallrye"/> element to the xml or by using the following CLI operation:

[standalone@localhost:9990 /] /extension=org.wildfly.extension.microprofile.reactive-messaging-smallrye:add
{"outcome" => "success"}

[standalone@localhost:9990 /] /subsystem=microprofile-reactive-messaging-smallrye:add
{
    "outcome" => "success",
    "response-headers" => {
        "operation-requires-reload" => true,
        "process-state" => "reload-required"
    }
}

To use this subsystem, you must also enable the MicroProfile Reactive Streams Operators extension and subsystem.

If you provision your own server and include the microprofile-reactive-messaging Galleon layer, you will get the required modules, and the extension and subsystem will be added to your configuration.

If you provision the microprofile-reactive-messaging-kafka Galleon layer it includes the modules to enable the Kafka connector functionality. The microprofile-reactive-messaging-kafka layer includes the microprofile-reactive-messaging layer which provides the core MicroProfile Reactive Messaging functionality.

7.21.2. Specification

WildFly’s MicroProfile Reactive Messaging subsystem implements MicroProfile Reactive Messaging {eclipse-mp-reactive-messaging-api-version}, which adds support for asynchronous messaging support based on MicroProfile Reactive Streams Operators.

7.21.3. Configuration

The microprofile-reactive-messaging-smallrye subsystem contains no configurable attributes or resources. For the core MicroProfile Reactive Messaging functionality there is no configuration. For configuration of the connectors to external brokers MicroProfile Config is used.

Activation

The subsystem will scan all deployments to find classes containing methods with the org.eclipse.microprofile.reactive.messaging.Incoming or org.eclipse.microprofile.reactive.messaging.Outgoing annotations. If these annotations are found, Reactive Messaging will be enabled for the deployment.

Programming model and Limitations

See the spec for more thorough examples, this section just attempts to summarize the highlights.

Version 1.0 of the MicroProfile Reactive Messaging specification introduced the @Incoming and @Outgoing annotations. They are intended for use in an @ApplicationScoped (or @Dependent) CDI bean:

@ApplicationScoped
public class MyBean {
    @Outgoing("in-memory")
    public String generate() {
        return ...; // Do some generation of values
    }

    @Incoming("in-memory")
    public void consume(String value) {
        System.out.println(value);
    }
}

Values generated by the generate() method will be received by the consume() method. In this basic setup where the channel names match, the streams are dealt with in-memory. We’ll see how to have them handled by Kafka later on.

In the above example, we are essentially generating values and consuming them with no user-interaction. MicroProfile Reactive Messaging 2.0 introduces a @Channel annotation, which can be used to inject a Publisher for receiving values sent on streams, and an Emitter which can be used to send values to a stream. This makes it easier to send/receive values from code paths resulting from user interaction:

@ApplicationScoped
public class MyBean {
    @Inject
    @Channel("in-memory")
    Emitter<String> emitter;

    @Inject
    @Channel("in-memory")
    Publisher<String> publisher;

    void send(String value) {
        emitter.send(value);
    }
}

In the above example we can now easily send data to the Reactive Messaging streams by calling Emitter.send(). Similarly, we can subscribe to the Publisher and receive the data. However, receiving still has a few shortcomings:

  • The above example will not work out of the box. When trying to send on the Emitter, you will get an error that there are no subscibers (which in turn runs the risk of causing overflow). This can be worked around by creating a subscription on the Publisher.

  • At present there can only be one subscription on the injected Publisher.

The above points means that this Publisher is not usable directly as an asynchronous return value for e.g. a Jakarta RESTFul Webservices endpoint. As the Jakarta RESTFul Webservices request is what will create the subscription such a call would need to happen before calling Emitter.send().

If we replace the Emitter with the generate() method from the original method our example will work. However, if we return the Publisher to more than one Jakarta RESTFul Webservices request, we end up with more than one subscriptions which will not all receive every single value.

User’s applications intended to return published values to users via e.g. Jakarta RESTFul Webservices will need to do their own subscriptions and buffering of the data. Care must be taken to not let the cache grow uncontrolled, which could cause OutOfMemoryErrors.

Connectors

MicroProfile Reactive Messaging is designed to be flexible enough to integrate with a wide variety of external messaging systems. This functionality is provided via 'connectors'.

The only included connector at the moment is the Kafka connector.

Connectors are configured using MicroProfile Config. The property keys for the methods have some prefixes mandated by the MicroProfile Reactive Messaging Specification which lists these as:

  • mp.messaging.incoming.[channel-name].[attribute]=[value]

  • mp.messaging.outgoing.[channel-name].[attribute]=[value]

  • mp.messaging.connector.[connector-name].[attribute]=[value]

Essentially channel-name is the @Incoming.value() or the @Outgoing.value().

If we have the following pair of methods:

@Outgoing("to")
public int send() {
    int i = // Randomly generated...
}

@Incoming("from")
public void receive(int i) {
    // Process payload
}

Then the property prefixes mandated by the MicroProfile Reactive Messaging specifications are:

  • mp.messaging.incoming.from. - this would pick out the property as configuration of the receive() method.

  • mp.messaging.outgoing.to. - this would pick out the property as configuration of the send() method.

Note that although these prefixes are understood by the subsystem, the full set depends on the connector you want to configure. Different connectors understand different properties.

Kafka Connector

An example of a minimal microprofile-config.properties file for Kafka for the example application shown previously:

kafka.bootstrap.servers=kafka:9092

mp.messaging.outgoing.to.connector=smallrye-kafka
mp.messaging.outgoing.to.topic=my-topic
mp.messaging.outgoing.to.value.serializer=org.apache.kafka.common.serialization.IntegerSerializer

mp.messaging.incoming.from.connector=smallrye-kafka
mp.messaging.incoming.from.topic=my-topic
mp.messaging.incoming.from.value.deserializer=org.apache.kafka.common.serialization.IntegerDeserializer

Next we will briefly discuss each of these entries. Remember the to channel is on the send() method, and the from channel is on the receive() method.

kafka.bootstrap.servers=kafka:9092 sets the URL of the Kafka broker to connect to for the whole application. It could also be done for just the to channel by setting mp.messaging.outgoing.to.bootstrap.servers=kafka:9092 instead.

mp.messaging.outgoing.to.connector=smallrye-kafka says that we want to use Kafka to back the to channel. Note that the value smallrye-kafka is SmallRye Reactive Messaging specific, and will only be understood if the Kafka connector is enabled.

mp.messaging.outgoing.to.topic=my-topic says that we will send data to the Kafka topic called my-topic.

mp.messaging.outgoing.to.value.serializer=org.apache.kafka.common.serialization.IntegerSerializer tells the connector to use IntegerSerializer to serialize the values output by the send() method when writing to the topic. Kafka provides serializers for the standard Java types. You may implement your own serializer by writing a class implementing org.apache.kafka.common.serialization.Serializer and including it in the deployment.

mp.messaging.incoming.from.connector=smallrye-kafka says that we want to use Kafka to back the from channel. As above, the value smallrye-kafka is SmallRye Reactive Messaging specific.

mp.messaging.incoming.from.topic=my-topic says that we will read data from the Kafka topic called my-topic.

mp.messaging.incoming.from.value.deserializer=org.apache.kafka.common.serialization.IntegerDeserializer tells the connector to use IntegerDeserializer to deserialize the values from the topic before calling the receive() method. You may implement your own deserializer by writing a class implementing org.apache.kafka.common.serialization.Deserializer and including it in the deployment.

In addition to the above, Apache Kafka, and SmallRye Reactive Messaging’s Kafka connector understand a lot more properties. These can be found in the SmallRye Reactive Messaging Kafka connector documentation, and in the Apache Kafka documentation for the producers and the consumers.

The prefixes discussed above are stripped off before passing the property to Kafka. The same happens for other configuration properties. See the Kafka documentation for more details about how to configure Kafka consumers and producers.

Connecting to secure Kafka

If connecting to a Kafka instance secured with SSL and SASL, the following example 'microprofile-config.properties' will help you get started. There are a few new properties. We are showing them on the connector level but they could equally well be defined on the channel level (i.e. with the mp.messaging.outgoing.to-kafka. and mp.messaging.incoming.from-kafka. prefixes from the previous examples rather than the connector-wide mp.messaging.connector.smallrye-kafka prefix).

mp.messaging.connector.smallrye-kafka.bootstrap.servers=localhost:9092
mp.messaging.connector.smallrye-kafka.sasl.mechanism=PLAIN
mp.messaging.connector.smallrye-kafka.security.protocol=SASL_SSL
mp.messaging.connector.smallrye-kafka.sasl.jaas.config=org.apache.kafka.common.security.plain.PlainLoginModule required \
  username="${USER}" \
  password="${PASSWORD}";
mp.messaging.connector.smallrye-kafka.wildfly.elytron.ssl.context=test

# Channel configuration would follow here, but is left out for brevity

Each of these lines has the following meaning:

  • mp.messaging.connector.smallrye-kafka.bootstrap.servers=localhost:9092 - specifies the Kafka servers to connect to. This is the same as in the previous examples

  • mp.messaging.connector.smallrye-kafka.sasl.mechanism=PLAIN - specifies the SASL mechanism to use. See sasl.mechanism in the Kafka documentation for other choices.

  • mp.messaging.connector.smallrye-kafka.security.protocol - specifies the protocol mechanism to use. See security.protocol in the Kafka documentation for other choices. In this case we are using SASL_SSL which means that communication is over SSL, and that SASL is used to authenticate

  • mp.messaging.connector.smallrye-kafka.sasl.jaas.config=…​ - specifies how we will authenticate with Kafka. In order to not hardcode the credentials in our microprofile-config.properties file we are using the property substitution feature of MicroProfile Config. In this case, if you have defined the USER and PASSWORD environment variables they will be passed in as part of the configuration

  • mp.messaging.connector.smallrye-kafka.wildfly.elytron.ssl.context=test - this is not needed if Kafka is secured with a CA signed certificate. If you are using self-signed certificates, you will need to specify a truststore in the Elytron subsystem, and create an SSLContext referencing that. The value of this property is used to look up the SSLContext in the Elytron subsystem under /subsystem=elytron/client-ssl-context=* in the WildFly management model. In this case the property value is test, so we look up the SSLContext defined by /subsystem=elytron/client-ssl-context=test and use that configure the truststore to use for the connection to Kafka.

Kafka User API

In order to be able to get more information about messages received from Kafka, and to be able to influence how Kafka handles messages, there is a user API for Kafka. This API lives in the io/smallrye/reactive/messaging/kafka/api package.

The API consists of the following classes:

  • IncomingKafkaRecordMetadata - This metadata contains information such as:

    • the key of the Kafka record represented by a Message

    • the Kafka topic and partition used for the Message, and the offset within those

    • the Message timestamp and timestampType

    • the Message headers - these are pieces of information the application can attach on the producing side, and receive on the consuming side. They are stored and forwarded on by Kafka but have no meaning to Kafka itself.

  • OutgoingKafkaRecordMetadata - This is constructed via the builder returned via the builder() method, and allows you to specify/override how Kafka will handle the messages. Similar to the IncomingKafkaRecordMetadata case, you can set:

    • the key. Kafka will then treat this entry as the key of the message

    • the topic, as already seen we typically use the microprofile-config.properties configuration to specify the topic to use for a channel backed by Kafka. However, in some cases the code sending the message might need to make some choices (for example depending on values contained in the data) about which topic to send to. Specifying this here will make Kafka use that topic.

    • the partition. Generally, it is best to let Kafka’s partitioner choose the partition, but for cases where it is essential to be able to specify it this can be done

    • the timestamp if you don’t want the one auto-generated by Kafka

    • headers - you can attach headers for the consumer, as mentioned for IncomingKafkaRecordMetadata

  • KafkaMetadataUtil contains utility methods to write OutgoingKafkaRecordMetadata to a Message, and to read IncomingKafkaRecordMetadata from a Message. Note that if you write OutgoingKafkaRecordMetadata to a Message which is sent to a channel not handled by Kafka it will be ignored, and if you attempt to read IncomingKafkaRecordMetadata from a Message arriving from a channel no handled by Kafka it will be null.

The following example shows how to write and read the key from a message:

@Inject
@Channel("from-user")
Emitter<Integer> emitter;

@Incoming("from-user")
@Outgoing("to-kafka")
public Message<Integer> send(Message<Integer> msg) {
    // Set the key in the metadata
    OutgoingKafkaRecordMetadata<String> md =
            OutgoingKafkaRecordMetadata.<String>builder()
                .withKey("KEY-" + i)
                .build();
    // Note that Message is immutable so the copy returned by this method
    // call is not the same as the parameter to the method
    return KafkaMetadataUtil.writeOutgoingKafkaMetadata(msg, md);
}

@Incoming("from-kafka")
public CompletionStage<Void> receive(Message<Integer> msg) {
    IncomingKafkaRecordMetadata<String, Integer> metadata =
        KafkaMetadataUtil.readIncomingKafkaMetadata(msg).get();

    // We can now read the Kafka record key
    String key = metadata.getKey();

    // When using the Message wrapper around the payload we need to explicitly ack
    // them
    return msg.ack();
}

To configure the Kafka mapping we need a microprofile-config.properties

kafka.bootstrap.servers=kafka:9092

mp.messaging.outgoing.to-kafka.connector=smallrye-kafka
mp.messaging.outgoing.to-kafka.topic=some-topic
mp.messaging.outgoing.to-kafka.value.serializer=org.apache.kafka.common.serialization.IntegerSerializer
mp.messaging.outgoing.to-kafka.key.serializer=org.apache.kafka.common.serialization.StringSerializer

mp.messaging.incoming.from-kafka.connector=smallrye-kafka
mp.messaging.incoming.from-kafka.topic=some-topic
mp.messaging.incoming.from-kafka.value.deserializer=org.apache.kafka.common.serialization.IntegerDeserializer
mp.messaging.incoming.from-kafka.key.deserializer=org.apache.kafka.common.serialization.StringDeserializer

This configuration looks a lot like the previous configuration that we saw, but note that we need to specify the key.serializer for the outgoing channel, and the key.deserializer for the incoming channel. As before, they are implementations of org.apache.kafka.common.serialization.Serializer and org.apache.kafka.common.serialization.Deserializer respectively. Kafka provides implementations for basic types, and you may write your own and include them in the deployment.

A note on org.apache.kafka classes

While we do expose the Kafka Clients jar in our BOMs, its usage is limited to

  • Classes/interfaces exposed via the Kafka User API, e.g.:

    • org.apache.kafka.common.header.Header and org.apache.kafka.common.header.Headers and implementations of those that are considered public API as per the Apache Kafka documentation.

    • org.apache.kafka.clients.consumer.ConsumerRecord

    • org.apache.kafka.common.record.TimestampType

  • Classes/interfaces needed for serialization and deserialization:

    • org.apache.kafka.common.serialization.Deserializer

    • org.apache.kafka.common.serialization.Serializer

    • Implementatations of org.apache.kafka.common.serialization.Deserializer and org.apache.kafka.common.serialization.Serializer in the org.apache.kafka.common.serialization package

7.21.4. Component Reference

The MicroProfile Reactive Messaging implementation is provided by the SmallRye Reactive Messaging project.

7.22. Web services configuration

JBossWS components are provided to the application server through the webservices subsystem. JBossWS components handle the processing of WS endpoints. The subsystem supports the configuration of published endpoint addresses, and endpoint handler chains. A default webservice subsystem is provided in the server’s domain and standalone configuration files.

7.22.1. Structure of the webservices subsystem

Published endpoint address

JBossWS supports the rewriting of the <soap:address> element of endpoints published in WSDL contracts. This feature is useful for controlling the server address that is advertised to clients for each endpoint.

The following elements are available and can be modified (all are optional):

Name Type Description

modify-wsdl-address

boolean

This boolean enables and disables the address rewrite functionality.When modify-wsdl-address is set to true and the content of <soap:address> is a valid URL, JBossWS will rewrite the URL using the values of wsdl-host and wsdl-port or wsdl-secure-port.When modify-wsdl-address is set to false and the content of <soap:address> is a valid URL, JBossWS will not rewrite the URL. The <soap:address> URL will be used.When the content of <soap:address> is not a valid URL, JBossWS will rewrite it no matter what the setting of modify-wsdl-address.If modify-wsdl-address is set to true and wsdl-host is not defined or explicitly set to 'jbossws.undefined.host' the content of <soap:address> URL is use. JBossWS uses the requester’s host when rewriting the <soap:address>When modify-wsdl-address is not defined JBossWS uses a default value of true.

wsdl-host

string

The hostname / IP address to be used for rewriting <soap:address>.If wsdl-host is set to jbossws.undefined.host, JBossWS uses the requester’s host when rewriting the <soap:address>When wsdl-host is not defined JBossWS uses a default value of 'jbossws.undefined.host'.

wsdl-port

int

Set this property to explicitly define the HTTP port that will be used for rewriting the SOAP address.Otherwise the HTTP port will be identified by querying the list of installed HTTP connectors.

wsdl-secure-port

int

Set this property to explicitly define the HTTPS port that will be used for rewriting the SOAP address.Otherwise the HTTPS port will be identified by querying the list of installed HTTPS connectors.

wsdl-uri-scheme

string

This property explicitly sets the URI scheme to use for rewriting <soap:address> . Valid values are http and https. This configuration overrides scheme computed by processing the endpoint (even if a transport guaranteeis specified). The provided values for wsdl-port and wsdl-secure-port (or their default values) are used depending on specified scheme.

wsdl-path-rewrite-rule

string

This string defines a SED substitution command (e.g., 's/regexp/replacement/g') that JBossWS executes against the path component of each <soap:address> URL published from the server.When wsdl-path-rewrite-rule is not defined, JBossWS retains the original path component of each <soap:address> URL.When 'modify-wsdl-address' is set to "false" this element is ignored.

Predefined endpoint configurations

JBossWS enables extra setup configuration data to be predefined and associated with an endpoint implementation. Predefined endpoint configurations can be used for Jakarta XML Web Services client and Jakarta XML Web Services endpoint setup. Endpoint configurations can include Jakarta XML Web Services handlers and key/value properties declarations. This feature provides a convenient way to add handlers to WS endpoints and to set key/value properties that control JBossWS and Apache CXF internals ( see Apache CXF configuration).

The webservices subsystem provides schema to support the definition of named sets of endpoint configuration data. Annotation, org.jboss.ws.api.annotation.EndpointConfig is provided to map the named configuration to the endpoint implementation.

There is no limit to the number of endpoint configurations that can be defined within the webservices subsystem. Each endpoint configuration must have a name that is unique within the webservices subsystem. Endpoint configurations defined in the webservices subsystem are available for reference by name through the annotation to any endpoint in a deployed application.

WildFly ships with two predefined endpoint configurations. Standard-Endpoint-Config is the default configuration. Recording-Endpoint-Config is an example of custom endpoint configuration and includes a recording handler.

[standalone@localhost:9999 /] /subsystem=webservices:read-resource
{
    "outcome" => "success",
    "result" => {
        "endpoint" => {},
        "modify-wsdl-address" => true,
        "wsdl-host" => expression "${jboss.bind.address:127.0.0.1}",
        "endpoint-config" => {
            "Standard-Endpoint-Config" => undefined,
            "Recording-Endpoint-Config" => undefined
        }
    }
}
The Standard-Endpoint-Config is a special endpoint configuration. It is used for any endpoint that does not have an explicitly assigned endpoint configuration.
Endpoint configs

Endpoint configs are defined using the endpoint-config element. Each endpoint configuration may include properties and handlers set to the endpoints associated to the configuration.

[standalone@localhost:9999 /] /subsystem=webservices/endpoint-config=Recording-Endpoint-Config:read-resource
{
    "outcome" => "success",
    "result" => {
        "post-handler-chain" => undefined,
        "property" => undefined,
        "pre-handler-chain" => {"recording-handlers" => undefined}
    }
}

A new endpoint configuration can be added as follows:

[standalone@localhost:9999 /] /subsystem=webservices/endpoint-config=My-Endpoint-Config:add
{
    "outcome" => "success",
    "response-headers" => {
        "operation-requires-restart" => true,
        "process-state" => "restart-required"
    }
}
Handler chains

Each endpoint configuration may be associated with zero or more PRE and POST handler chains. Each handler chain may include JAXWS handlers. For outbound messages the PRE handler chains are executed before any handler that is attached to the endpoint using the standard means, such as with annotation @HandlerChain, and POST handler chains are executed after those objects have executed. For inbound messages the POST handler chains are executed before any handler that is attached to the endpoint using the standard means and the PRE handler chains are executed after those objects have executed.

* Server inbound messages
Client --> ... --> POST HANDLER --> ENDPOINT HANDLERS --> PRE HANDLERS --> Endpoint

* Server outbound messages
Endpoint --> PRE HANDLER --> ENDPOINT HANDLERS --> POST HANDLERS --> ... --> Client

The protocol-binding attribute must be used to set the protocols for which the chain will be triggered.

[standalone@localhost:9999 /] /subsystem=webservices/endpoint-config=Recording-Endpoint-Config/pre-handler-chain=recording-handlers:read-resource
{
    "outcome" => "success",
    "result" => {
        "protocol-bindings" => "##SOAP11_HTTP ##SOAP11_HTTP_MTOM ##SOAP12_HTTP ##SOAP12_HTTP_MTOM",
        "handler" => {"RecordingHandler" => undefined}
    },
    "response-headers" => {"process-state" => "restart-required"}
}

A new handler chain can be added as follows:

[standalone@localhost:9999 /] /subsystem=webservices/endpoint-config=My-Endpoint-Config/post-handler-chain=my-handlers:add(protocol-bindings="##SOAP11_HTTP")
{
    "outcome" => "success",
    "response-headers" => {
        "operation-requires-restart" => true,
        "process-state" => "restart-required"
    }
}
[standalone@localhost:9999 /] /subsystem=webservices/endpoint-config=My-Endpoint-Config/post-handler-chain=my-handlers:read-resource
{
    "outcome" => "success",
    "result" => {
        "handler" => undefined,
        "protocol-bindings" => "##SOAP11_HTTP"
    },
    "response-headers" => {"process-state" => "restart-required"}
}
Handlers

JAXWS handler can be added in handler chains:

[standalone@localhost:9999 /] /subsystem=webservices/endpoint-config=Recording-Endpoint-Config/pre-handler-chain=recording-handlers/handler=RecordingHandler:read-resource
{
    "outcome" => "success",
    "result" => {"class" => "org.jboss.ws.common.invocation.RecordingServerHandler"},
    "response-headers" => {"process-state" => "restart-required"}
}
[standalone@localhost:9999 /] /subsystem=webservices/endpoint-config=My-Endpoint-Config/post-handler-chain=my-handlers/handler=foo-handler:add(class="org.jboss.ws.common.invocation.RecordingServerHandler")
{
    "outcome" => "success",
    "response-headers" => {
        "operation-requires-restart" => true,
        "process-state" => "restart-required"
    }
}

Endpoint-config handler classloading

The class attribute is used to provide the fully qualified class name of the handler. At deploy time, an instance of the class is created for each referencing deployment. For class creation to succeed, the deployment classloader must to be able to load the handler class.

7.22.2. Runtime information

Each web service endpoint is exposed through the deployment that provides the endpoint implementation. Each endpoint can be queried as a deployment resource. For further information please consult the chapter "Application Deployment". Each web service endpoint specifies a web context and a WSDL Url:

[standalone@localhost:9999 /] /deployment="*"/subsystem=webservices/endpoint="*":read-resource
{
   "outcome" => "success",
   "result" => [{
       "address" => [
           ("deployment" => "jaxws-samples-handlerchain.war"),
           ("subsystem" => "webservices"),
           ("endpoint" => "jaxws-samples-handlerchain:TestService")
       ],
       "outcome" => "success",
       "result" => {
           "class" => "org.jboss.test.ws.jaxws.samples.handlerchain.EndpointImpl",
           "context" => "jaxws-samples-handlerchain",
           "name" => "TestService",
           "type" => "JAXWS_JSE",
           "wsdl-url" => "http://localhost:8080/jaxws-samples-handlerchain?wsdl"
       }
   }]
}

7.22.3. Component Reference

The web service subsystem is provided by the JBossWS project. For a detailed description of the available configuration properties, please consult the project documentation.

7.23. Resource adapters

Resource adapters are configured through the resource-adapters subsystem. Declaring a new resource adapter consists of two separate steps: You would need to deploy the .rar archive and define a resource adapter entry in the subsystem.

7.23.1. Resource Adapter Definitions

The resource adapter itself is defined within the subsystem resource-adapters:

<subsystem xmlns="urn:jboss:domain:resource-adapters:1.0">
    <resource-adapters>
       <resource-adapter>
          <archive>eis.rar</archive>
          <!-- Resource adapter level config-property -->
          <config-property name="Server">localhost</config-property>
          <config-property name="Port">19000</config-property>
          <transaction-support>XATransaction</transaction-support>
          <connection-definitions>
             <connection-definition class-name="com.acme.eis.ra.EISManagedConnectionFactory"
                                    jndi-name="java:/eis/AcmeConnectionFactory"
                                    pool-name="AcmeConnectionFactory">
                <!-- Managed connection factory level config-property -->
                <config-property name="Name">Acme Inc</config-property>
                <pool>
                   <min-pool-size>10</min-pool-size>
                   <max-pool-size>100</max-pool-size>
                </pool>
                <security>
                   <application/>
                </security>
             </connection-definition>
         </connection-definitions>
         <admin-objects>
             <admin-object class-name="com.acme.eis.ra.EISAdminObjectImpl"
                           jndi-name="java:/eis/AcmeAdminObject">
                <config-property name="Threshold">10</config-property>
             </admin-object>
         </admin-objects>
       </resource-adapter>
    </resource-adapters>
</subsystem>

Note, that only JNDI bindings under java:/ or java:jboss/ are supported.

(See standalone/configuration/standalone.xml )

7.23.2. Automatic activation of resource adapter archives

A resource adapter archive can be automatically activated with a configuration by including an META-INF/ironjacamar.xml in the archive.

7.23.3. Component Reference

The resource adapter subsystem is provided by the IronJacamar project. For a detailed description of the available configuration properties, please consult the project documentation.

7.24. Jakarta Batch Subsystem Configuration

The batch subsystem is used to configure an environment for running batch applications. WildFly uses JBeret for it’s batch implementation. Specific information about JBeret can be found in the user guide. The resource path, in CLI notation, for the subsystem is subsystem=batch-jberet.

7.24.1. Default Subsystem Configuration

For up to date information about subsystem configuration options see the WildFly model reference.

7.24.2. Security

A new security-domain attribute was added to the batch-jberet subsystem to allow batch jobs to be executed under that security domain. Jobs that are stopped as part of a suspend operation will be restarted on execution of a resume with the original user that started job.

There was a org.wildfly.extension.batch.jberet.deployment.BatchPermission added to allow a security restraint to various batch functions. The following functions can be controlled with this permission.

  • start

  • stop

  • restart

  • abandon

  • read

The read function allows users to use the getter methods from the javax.batch.operations.JobOperator or read the batch-jberet deployment resource, for example /deployment=my.war/subsystem=batch-jberet:read-resource.

7.24.3. Job Repository

The batch subsystem supports 2 types of job repository:

  • in-memory job repository: all job execution data are kept in the memory of WildFly instance. When the server shuts down, all job execution data are lost. In a clustered environment, each WildFly server instance has its own in-memory job repository, and it is not possible to share job execution data between WildFly instances. This is the default job repository in batch subsystem.

  • jdbc job repository: all job execution data are saved in a relational database accessed via jdbc. In a clustered environment, a jdbc job repository can be used to share job execution data between WildFly instances. For example, one may start a job execution in one instance, stop and restart it from a different WildFly instance.

7.24.4. Deployment Descriptors

There are no deployment descriptors for configuring a batch environment defined by the JSR-352 specification. In WildFly you can use a jboss-all.xml deployment descriptor to define aspects of the batch environment for your deployment.

In the jboss-all.xml deployment descriptor you can define a named job repository, a new job repository and/or a named thread pool. A named job repository and named thread pool are resources defined on the batch subsystem. Only a named thread pool is allowed to be defined in the deployment descriptor.

Example Named Job Repository and Thread Pool
<jboss xmlns="urn:jboss:1.0">
    <batch xmlns="urn:jboss:domain:batch-jberet:2.0">
      <job-repository>
        <named name="batch-ds"/>
      </job-repository>
      <thread-pool name="deployment-thread-pool"/>
    </batch>
</jboss>
Example new Job Repository
<jboss xmlns="urn:jboss:1.0">
    <batch xmlns="urn:jboss:domain:batch-jberet:2.0">
        <job-repository>
            <jdbc data-source="batch-ds"/>
        </job-repository>
    </batch>
</jboss>

7.24.5. Deployment Resources

Some subsystems in WildFly register runtime resources for deployments. The batch subsystem registers jobs and executions. The jobs are registered using the job name, this is not the job XML name. Executions are registered using the execution id.

Batch application in a standalone server
[standalone@localhost:9990 /] /deployment=batch-jdbc-chunk.war/subsystem=batch-jberet:read-resource(recursive=true,include-runtime=true)
{
    "outcome" => "success",
    "result" => {"job" => {
        "reader-3" => {
            "instance-count" => 1,
            "running-executions" => 0,
            "execution" => {"1" => {
                "batch-status" => "COMPLETED",
                "create-time" => "2015-08-07T15:37:06.416-0700",
                "end-time" => "2015-08-07T15:37:06.519-0700",
                "exit-status" => "COMPLETED",
                "instance-id" => 1L,
                "last-updated-time" => "2015-08-07T15:37:06.519-0700",
                "start-time" => "2015-08-07T15:37:06.425-0700"
            }}
        },
        "reader-5" => {
            "instance-count" => 0,
            "running-executions" => 0,
            "execution" => undefined
        }
    }}
}

The batch subsystem resource on a deployment also has 3 operations to interact with batch jobs on the selected deployment. There is a start-job, stop-job and restart-job operation. The execution resource also has a stop-job and restart-job operation.

Example start-job
[standalone@localhost:9990 /] /deployment=batch-chunk.war/subsystem=batch-jberet:start-job(job-xml-name=simple, properties={writer.sleep=5000})
{
    "outcome" => "success",
    "result" => 1L
}
Example stop-job
[standalone@localhost:9990 /] /deployment=batch-chunk.war/subsystem=batch-jberet:stop-job(execution-id=2)
Example restart-job
[standalone@localhost:9990 /] /deployment=batch-chunk.war/subsystem=batch-jberet:restart-job(execution-id=2)
{
    "outcome" => "success",
    "result" => 3L
}
Result of resource after the 3 executions
[standalone@localhost:9990 /] /deployment=batch-chunk.war/subsystem=batch-jberet:read-resource(recursive=true, include-runtime=true)
{
    "outcome" => "success",
    "result" => {"job" => {"chunkPartition" => {
        "instance-count" => 2,
        "running-executions" => 0,
        "execution" => {
            "1" => {
                "batch-status" => "COMPLETED",
                "create-time" => "2015-08-07T15:41:55.504-0700",
                "end-time" => "2015-08-07T15:42:15.513-0700",
                "exit-status" => "COMPLETED",
                "instance-id" => 1L,
                "last-updated-time" => "2015-08-07T15:42:15.513-0700",
                "start-time" => "2015-08-07T15:41:55.504-0700"
            },
            "2" => {
                "batch-status" => "STOPPED",
                "create-time" => "2015-08-07T15:44:39.879-0700",
                "end-time" => "2015-08-07T15:44:54.882-0700",
                "exit-status" => "STOPPED",
                "instance-id" => 2L,
                "last-updated-time" => "2015-08-07T15:44:54.882-0700",
                "start-time" => "2015-08-07T15:44:39.879-0700"
            },
            "3" => {
                "batch-status" => "COMPLETED",
                "create-time" => "2015-08-07T15:45:48.162-0700",
                "end-time" => "2015-08-07T15:45:53.165-0700",
                "exit-status" => "COMPLETED",
                "instance-id" => 2L,
                "last-updated-time" => "2015-08-07T15:45:53.165-0700",
                "start-time" => "2015-08-07T15:45:48.163-0700"
            }
        }
    }}}
}

Pro Tip

You can filter jobs by an attribute on the execution resource with the query operation.
View all stopped jobs
/deployment=batch-chunk.war/subsystem=batch-jberet/job=*/execution=*:query(where=["batch-status", "STOPPED"])

As with all operations you can see details about the operation using the :read-operation-description operation.

Tab completion

Don’t forget that CLI has tab completion which will complete operations and attributes (arguments) on operations.
Example start-job operation description
[standalone@localhost:9990 /] /deployment=batch-chunk.war/subsystem=batch-jberet:read-operation-description(name=start-job)
{
    "outcome" => "success",
    "result" => {
        "operation-name" => "start-job",
        "description" => "Starts a batch job.",
        "request-properties" => {
            "job-xml-name" => {
                "type" => STRING,
                "description" => "The name of the job XML file to use when starting the job.",
                "expressions-allowed" => false,
                "required" => true,
                "nillable" => false,
                "min-length" => 1L,
                "max-length" => 2147483647L
            },
            "properties" => {
                "type" => OBJECT,
                "description" => "Optional properties to use when starting the batch job.",
                "expressions-allowed" => false,
                "required" => false,
                "nillable" => true,
                "value-type" => STRING
            }
        },
        "reply-properties" => {"type" => LONG},
        "read-only" => false,
        "runtime-only" => true
    }
}

7.25. Jakarta Server Faces Configuration

Jakarta Server Faces configuration is handled by the Jakarta Server Faces subsystem. The Jakarta Server Faces subsystem allows multiple Jakarta Server Faces implementations to be installed on the same WildFly server. In particular, any version of Mojarra or MyFaces that implements spec level 2.1 or higher can be installed. For each Jakarta Server Faces implementation, a new slot needs to be created under com.sun.jsf-impl, javax.faces.api, and org.jboss.as.jsf-injection. When the Jakarta Server Faces subsystem starts up, it scans the module path to find all of the Jakarta Server Faces implementations that have been installed. The default Jakarta Server Faces implementation that WildFly should use is defined by the default-jsf-impl-slot attribute.

7.25.1. Installing a new Jakarta Server Faces implementation manually

A new Jakarta Server Faces implementation can be manually installed as follows:

Add a module slot for the new Jakarta Server Faces implementation JAR
  • Create the following directory structure under the WILDFLY_HOME/modules directory:
    WILDFLY_HOME/modules/com/sun/jsf-impl/<JSF_IMPL_NAME>-<JSF_VERSION>

    For example, for Mojarra 2.2.11, the above path would resolve to:
    WILDFLY_HOME/modules/com/sun/jsf-impl/mojarra-2.2.11

  • Place the Jakarta Server Faces implementation JAR in the <JSF_IMPL_NAME>-<JSF_VERSION> subdirectory. In the same subdirectory, add a module.xml file similar to the Mojarra or MyFaces template examples. Change the resource-root-path to the name of your Jakarta Server Faces implementation JAR and fill in appropriate values for $\{ jsf-impl-name} and $\{ jsf-version}.

Add a module slot for the new Jakarta Server Faces API JAR
  • Create the following directory structure under the WILDFLY_HOME/modules directory:
    WILDFLY_HOME/modules/javax/faces/api/<JSF_IMPL_NAME>-<JSF_VERSION>

  • Place the JSF API JAR in the <JSF_IMPL_NAME>-<JSF_VERSION> subdirectory. In the same subdirectory, add a module.xml file similar to the Mojarra or MyFaces template examples. Change the resource-root-path to the name of your Jakarta Server Faces API JAR and fill in appropriate values for $\{ jsf-impl-name} and $\{ jsf-version}.

Add a module slot for the Jakarta Server Faces injection JAR
  • Create the following directory structure under the WILDFLY_HOME/modules directory:
    WILDFLY_HOME/modules/org/jboss/as/jsf-injection/<JSF_IMPL_NAME>-<JSF_VERSION>

  • Copy the wildfly-jsf-injection JAR and the weld-core-jsf JAR from WILDFLY_HOME/modules/system/layers/base/org/jboss/as/jsf-injection/main to the <JSF_IMPL_NAME>-<JSF_VERSION> subdirectory.

  • In the <JSF_IMPL_NAME>-<JSF_VERSION> subdirectory, add a module.xml file similar to the Mojarra or MyFaces template examples and fill in appropriate values for $\{ jsf-impl-name}, $\{ jsf-version}, $\{ version.jboss.as}, and $\{ version.weld.core}. (These last two placeholders depend on the versions of the wildfly-jsf-injection and weld-core-jsf JARs that were copied over in the previous step.)

For MyFaces only - add a module for the commons-digester JAR
  • Create the following directory structure under the WILDFLY_HOME/modules directory:
    WILDFLY_HOME/modules/org/apache/commons/digester/main

  • Place the commons-digester JAR in WILDFLY_HOME/modules/org/apache/commons/digester/main. In the main subdirectory, add a module.xml file similar to this template. Fill in the appropriate value for $\{ version.commons-digester}.

Start the server

After starting the server, the following CLI command can be used to verify that your new Jakarta Server Faces implementation has been installed successfully. The new Jakarta Server Faces implementation should appear in the output of this command.

[standalone@localhost:9990 /] /subsystem=jsf:list-active-jsf-impls()

7.25.2. Changing the default Jakarta Server Faces implementation

The following CLI command can be used to make a newly installed Jakarta Server Faces implementation the default Jakarta Server Faces implementation used by WildFly:

/subsystem=jsf/:write-attribute(name=default-jsf-impl-slot,value=<JSF_IMPL_NAME>-<JSF_VERSION>)

A server restart will be required for this change to take effect.

7.25.3. Configuring a Jakarta Server Faces app to use a non-default Jakarta Server Faces implementation

A Jakarta Server Faces app can be configured to use an installed Jakarta Server Faces implementation that’s not the default implementation by adding a org.jboss.jbossfaces.JSF_CONFIG_NAME context parameter to its web.xml file. For example, to indicate that a Jakarta Server Faces app should use MyFaces 2.2.12 (assuming MyFaces 2.2.12 has been installed on the server), the following context parameter would need to be added:

<context-param>
  <param-name>org.jboss.jbossfaces.JSF_CONFIG_NAME</param-name>
  <param-value>myfaces-2.2.12</param-value>
</context-param>

If a Jakarta Server Faces app does not specify this context parameter, the default Jakarta Server Faces implementation will be used for that app.

7.25.4. Disallowing DOCTYPE declarations

The following CLI commands can be used to disallow DOCTYPE declarations in Jakarta Server Faces deployments:

/subsystem=jsf:write-attribute(name=disallow-doctype-decl, value=true)
reload

This setting can be overridden for a particular Jakarta Server Faces deployment by adding the com.sun.faces.disallowDoctypeDecl context parameter to the deployment’s web.xml file:

<context-param>
  <param-name>com.sun.faces.disallowDoctypeDecl</param-name>
  <param-value>false</param-value>
</context-param>

7.26. JMX subsystem configuration

The JMX subsystem registers a service with the Remoting endpoint so that remote access to JMX can be obtained over the exposed Remoting connector.

This is switched on by default in standalone mode and accessible over port 9990 but in domain mode is switched off so needs to be enabled - in domain mode the port will be the port of the Remoting connector for the WildFly instance to be monitored.

To use the connector you can access it in the standard way using a service:jmx URL:

import javax.management.MBeanServerConnection;
import javax.management.remote.JMXConnector;
import javax.management.remote.JMXConnectorFactory;
import javax.management.remote.JMXServiceURL;
 
public class JMXExample {
 
    public static void main(String[] args) throws Exception {
        //Get a connection to the WildFly MBean server on localhost
        String host = "localhost";
        int port = 9990;  // management-web port
        String urlString =
            System.getProperty("jmx.service.url","service:jmx:remote+http://" + host + ":" + port);
        JMXServiceURL serviceURL = new JMXServiceURL(urlString);
        JMXConnector jmxConnector = JMXConnectorFactory.connect(serviceURL, null);
        MBeanServerConnection connection = jmxConnector.getMBeanServerConnection();
 
        //Invoke on the WildFly MBean server
        int count = connection.getMBeanCount();
        System.out.println(count);
        jmxConnector.close();
    }
}

You also need to set your classpath when running the above example. The following script covers Linux. If your environment is much different, paste your script when you have it working.

!/bin/bash

# specify your WildFly folder +
export YOUR_JBOSS_HOME=~/WildFly

java -classpath $YOUR_JBOSS_HOME/bin/client/jboss-client.jar:./
JMXExample

You can also connect using jconsole.

If using jconsole use the jconsole.sh and jconsole.bat scripts included in the /bin directory of the WildFly distribution as these set the classpath as required to connect over Remoting.

In addition to the standard JVM MBeans, the WildFly MBean server contains the following MBeans:

JMX ObjectName Description

jboss.msc:type=container,name=jboss-as

Exposes management operations on the JBoss Modular Service Container, which is the dependency injection framework at the heart of WildFly. It is useful for debugging dependency problems, for example if you are integrating your own subsystems, as it exposes operations to dump all services and their current states

jboss.naming:type=JNDIView

Shows what is bound in JNDI

jboss.modules:type=ModuleLoader,name=*

This collection of MBeans exposes management operations on JBoss Modules classloading layer. It is useful for debugging dependency problems arising from missing module dependencies

7.26.1. Audit logging

Audit logging for the JMX MBean server managed by the JMX subsystem. The resource is at /subsystem=jmx/configuration=audit-log and its attributes are similar to the ones mentioned for /core-service=management/access=audit/logger=audit-log in Audit logging.

Attribute Description

enabled

true to enable logging of the JMX operations

log-boot

true to log the JMX operations when booting the server, false otherwise

log-read-only

If true all operations will be audit logged, if false only operations that change the model will be logged

Then which handlers are used to log the management operations are configured as handler=* children of the logger. These handlers and their formatters are defined in the global /core-service=management/access=audit section mentioned in Audit logging.

JSON Formatter

The same JSON Formatter is used as described in Audit logging. However the records for MBean Server invocations have slightly different fields from those logged for the core management layer.

2013-08-29 18:26:29 - {
    "type" : "jmx",
    "r/o" : false,
    "booting" : false,
    "version" : "10.0.0.Final",
    "user" : "$local",
    "domainUUID" : null,
    "access" : "JMX",
    "remote-address" : "127.0.0.1/127.0.0.1",
    "method" : "invoke",
    "sig" : [
        "javax.management.ObjectName",
        "java.lang.String",
        "[Ljava.lang.Object;",
        "[Ljava.lang.String;"
    ],
    "params" : [
        "java.lang:type=Threading",
        "getThreadInfo",
        "[Ljava.lang.Object;@5e6c33c",
        "[Ljava.lang.String;@4b681c69"
    ]
}

It includes an optional timestamp and then the following information in the json record

Field name Description

type

This will have the value jmx meaning it comes from the jmx subsystem

r/o

true if the operation has read only impact on the MBean(s)

booting

true if the operation was executed during the bootup process, false if it was executed once the server is up and running

version

The version number of the WildFly instance

user

The username of the authenticated user.

domainUUID

This is not currently populated for JMX operations

access

This can have one of the following values:*NATIVE - The operation came in through the native management interface, for example the CLI*HTTP - The operation came in through the domain HTTP interface, for example the admin console*JMX - The operation came in through the JMX subsystem. See JMX for how to configure audit logging for JMX.

remote-address

The address of the client executing this operation

method

The name of the called MBeanServer method

sig

The signature of the called called MBeanServer method

params

The actual parameters passed in to the MBeanServer method, a simple Object.toString() is called on each parameter.

error

If calling the MBeanServer method resulted in an error, this field will be populated with Throwable.getMessage()

7.27. Deployment Scanner configuration

The deployment scanner is only used in standalone mode. Its job is to monitor a directory for new files and to deploy those files. It can be found in standalone.xml:

<subsystem xmlns="urn:jboss:domain:deployment-scanner:2.0">
   <deployment-scanner scan-interval="5000"
      relative-to="jboss.server.base.dir" path="deployments" />
</subsystem>

You can define more deployment-scanner entries to scan for deployments from more locations. The configuration showed will scan the JBOSS_HOME/standalone/deployments directory every five seconds. The runtime model is shown below, and uses default values for attributes not specified in the xml:

[standalone@localhost:9999 /] /subsystem=deployment-scanner:read-resource(recursive=true)
{
    "outcome" => "success",
    "result" => {"scanner" => {"default" => {
        "auto-deploy-exploded" => false,
        "auto-deploy-zipped" => true,
        "deployment-timeout" => 60L,
        "name" => "default",
        "path" => "deployments",
        "relative-to" => "jboss.server.base.dir",
        "scan-enabled" => true,
        "scan-interval" => 5000
    }}}
}

The attributes are

Name Type Description

name

STRING

The name of the scanner. default is used if not specified

path

STRING

The actual filesystem path to be scanned. Treated as an absolute path, unless the 'relative-to' attribute is specified, in which case the value is treated as relative to that path.

relative-to

STRING

Reference to a filesystem path defined in the "paths" section of the server configuration, or one of the system properties specified on startup. In the example above jboss.server.base.dir resolves to JBOSS_HOME/standalone

scan-enabled

BOOLEAN

If true scanning is enabled

scan-interval

INT

Periodic interval, in milliseconds, at which the repository should be scanned for changes. A value of less than 1 indicates the repository should only be scanned at initial startup.

auto-deploy-zipped

BOOLEAN

Controls whether zipped deployment content should be automatically deployed by the scanner without requiring the user to add a .dodeploy marker file.

auto-deploy-exploded

BOOLEAN

Controls whether exploded deployment content should be automatically deployed by the scanner without requiring the user to add a .dodeploy marker file. Setting this to 'true' is not recommended for anything but basic development scenarios, as there is no way to ensure that deployment will not occur in the middle of changes to the content.

auto-deploy-xml

BOOLEAN

Controls whether XML content should be automatically deployed by the scanner without requiring a .dodeploy marker file.

deployment-timeout

LONG

Timeout, in seconds, a deployment is allows to execute before being canceled. The default is 60 seconds.

Deployment scanners can be added by modifying standalone.xml before starting up the server or they can be added and removed at runtime using the CLI

[standalone@localhost:9990 /] /subsystem=deployment-scanner/scanner=new:add(scan-interval=10000,relative-to="jboss.server.base.dir",path="other-deployments")
{"outcome" => "success"}
[standalone@localhost:9990 /] /subsystem=deployment-scanner/scanner=new:remove
{"outcome" => "success"}

You can also change the attributes at runtime, so for example to turn off scanning you can do

[standalone@localhost:9990 /] /subsystem=deployment-scanner/scanner=default:write-attribute(name="scan-enabled",value=false)
{"outcome" => "success"}
[standalone@localhost:9990 /] /subsystem=deployment-scanner:read-resource(recursive=true)
{
    "outcome" => "success",
    "result" => {"scanner" => {"default" => {
        "auto-deploy-exploded" => false,
        "auto-deploy-zipped" => true,
        "deployment-timeout" => 60L,
        "name" => "default",
        "path" => "deployments",
        "relative-to" => "jboss.server.base.dir",
        "scan-enabled" => false,
        "scan-interval" => 5000
    }}}
}

7.28. Core Management Subsystem Configuration

The core management subsystem is composed services used to manage the server or monitor its status.
The core management subsystem configuration may be used to:

  • register a listener for a server lifecycle events.

  • list the last configuration changes on a server.

7.28.1. Lifecycle listener

You can create an implementation of org.wildfly.extension.core.management.client.ProcessStateListener which will be notified on running and runtime configuration state changes thus enabling the developer to react to those changes.

In order to use this feature you need to create your own module then configure and deploy it using the core management subsystem.

For example let’s create a simple listener :

 public class SimpleListener implements ProcessStateListener {
 
    private File file;
    private FileWriter fileWriter;
    private ProcessStateListenerInitParameters parameters;
 
    @Override
    public void init(ProcessStateListenerInitParameters parameters) {
        this.parameters = parameters;
        this.file = new File(parameters.getInitProperties().get("file"));
        try {
            fileWriter = new FileWriter(file, true);
        } catch (IOException e) {
            e.printStackTrace();
        }
    }
 
    @Override
    public void cleanup() {
        try {
            fileWriter.close();
        } catch (IOException e) {
            e.printStackTrace();
        } finally {
            fileWriter = null;
        }
    }
 
    @Override
    public void runtimeConfigurationStateChanged(RuntimeConfigurationStateChangeEvent evt) {
        try {
            fileWriter.write(String.format("%s %s %s %s\n", parameters.getProcessType(), parameters.getRunningMode(), evt.getOldState(), evt.getNewState()));
        } catch (IOException e) {
            e.printStackTrace();
        }
    }
 
    @Override
    public void runningStateChanged(RunningStateChangeEvent evt) {
        try {
            fileWriter.write(String.format("%s %s %s %s\n", parameters.getProcessType(), parameters.getRunningMode(), evt.getOldState(), evt.getNewState()));
        } catch (IOException e) {
            e.printStackTrace();
        }
    }
}

To compile it you need to depend on the org.wildfly.core:wildfly-core-management-client maven module. Now let’s add the module to the wildfly modules :

module add --name=org.simple.lifecycle.events.listener --dependencies=org.wildfly.extension.core-management-client --resources=/home/ehsavoie/dev/demo/simple-listener/target/simple-process-state-listener.jar

Now we can register or listener :

/subsystem=core-management/process-state-listener=simple-listener:add(class=org.simple.lifecycle.events.listener.SimpleListener, module=org.simple.lifecycle.events.listener, properties={file=/home/wildfly/tmp/events.txt})

7.28.2. Configuration changes

You can use the core management subsystem to enable and configure an in-memory history of the last configuration changes.
For example to track the last 5 configuration changes let’s active this :

/subsystem=core-management/service=configuration-changes:add(max-history=5)

Now we can list the last configuration changes :

/subsystem=core-management/service=configuration-changes:list-changes()
{
    "outcome" => "success",
    "result" => [{
        "operation-date" => "2016-12-05T11:05:12.867Z",
        "access-mechanism" => "NATIVE",
        "remote-address" => "/127.0.0.1",
        "outcome" => "success",
        "operations" => [{
            "address" => [
                ("subsystem" => "core-management"),
                ("service" => "configuration-changes")
            ],
            "operation" => "add",
            "max-history" => 5,
            "operation-headers" => {
                "caller-type" => "user",
                "access-mechanism" => "NATIVE"
            }
        }]
    }]
}

7.28.3. JAXRS Subsystem Configuration

The jaxrs subsystem represents Jakarta RESTful Web Services. RESTEasy is the implementation.

Required Extension:

The required extension is in the module org.jboss.as.jaxrs. In most cases the extension should be present. However, if it is not you can add it with CLI.

/extension=org.jboss.as.jaxrs:add

This adds the following configuration entry:

<extension module="org.jboss.as.jaxrs"/>
Basic Subsystem Configuration Example:

By default the jaxrs subsystem is empty which results in default configuration values being used.

This can be changed with a management client such as the CLI or the web console. You can get detailed information about the "Configuration switches" in section 3.5 of the RESTEasy User Guide.

An example configuring the subsystem with the CLI:

/subsystem=jaxrs:write-attribute(name=resteasy-add-charset, value=true)
/subsystem=jaxrs:write-attribute(name=resteasy-gzip-max-input, value=17)
/subsystem=jaxrs:write-attribute(name=resteasy-gzip-max-input, value=17)
/subsystem=jaxrs:write-attribute(name=resteasy-jndi-resources, value=["java:global/jaxrsnoap/EJB_Resource1", "java:global/jaxrsnoap/EJB_Resource2"])
/subsystem=jaxrs:write-attribute(name=resteasy-language-mappings, value={"es"="es", "fr"="fr", "en"="en-US"})
/subsystem=jaxrs:write-attribute(name=resteasy-media-type-param-mapping, value=mt)
/subsystem=jaxrs:write-attribute(name=resteasy-providers, value=["com.bluemonkey.reader", "com.bluemonkey.writer"])

This generates the following XML configuration.

<subsystem xmlns="urn:jboss:domain:jaxrs:2.0">
    <resteasy-add-charset>true</resteasy-add-charset>
    <resteasy-gzip-max-input>17</resteasy-gzip-max-input>
    <resteasy-jndi-resources>
        <jndi>
            java:global/jaxrsnoap/EJB_Resource1
        </jndi>
        <jndi>
            java:global/jaxrsnoap/EJB_Resource2
        </jndi>
    </resteasy-jndi-resources>
    <resteasy-language-mappings>
        <entry key="es">
            es
        </entry>
        <entry key="fr">
            fr
        </entry>
        <entry key="en">
            en-US
        </entry>
    </resteasy-language-mappings>
    <resteasy-media-type-param-mapping>mt</resteasy-media-type-param-mapping>
    <resteasy-providers>
        <class>
            com.bluemonkey.reader
        </class>
        <class>
            com.bluemonkey.writer
        </class>
    </resteasy-providers>
</subsystem>

The use of hyphens is a WildFly convention. The hyphens are translated into periods before the parameters are passed into RESTEasy so that they conform to the RESTEasy parameter names.

For a discussion of the various parameters, see the RESTEasy User Guide.

One important thing to understand is that these parameters are global. That is, they apply to all deployments. Since these parameters are global, the classes referred to in "resteasy.providers" and "resteasy.disable.providers" must be available to all deployments. In practice, then, they are meant to enable or disable RESTEasy providers. Note that they can be used in conjunction with "resteasy-use-builtin-providers" to tailor a set of available providers.
Another important fact is that once parameters are changed via some management interface the changes require a redeployment of any applications previously deployed.
RESTEasy has introduced a new treatment of javax.ws.rs.WebApplicationException's thrown by a Jakarta REST client or MicroProfile REST Client running inside a RESTful resource, in which the embedded javax.ws.rs.core.Response is "sanitized" before being returned to prevent the risk of information leaking from a third party. The original behavior can be restored by setting the parameter "resteasy.original.webapplicationexception.behavior" to "true". See the RESTEasy User Guide chapter "Resteasy WebApplicationExceptions" for more information.

7.29. Elytron OpenID Connect Client Subsystem Configuration

The ability to secure applications using OpenID Connect is provided by the elytron-oidc-client subsystem.

7.29.1. Subsystem

The elytron-oidc-client subsystem is included in the default configuration. If not present, the subsystem can be added using the following CLI commands.

[standalone@localhost:9990 /] /extension=org.wildfly.extension.elytron-oidc-client:add

[standalone@localhost:9990 /] /subsystem=elytron-oidc-client:add

[standalone@localhost:9990 /] reload

7.29.2. Configuration

By default, the elytron-oidc-client subsystem does not contain any configured resources or attributes.

The configuration required to secure an application with OpenID Connect can either be provided within the application itself or within the elytron-oidc-client subsystem.

Deployment Configuration

The configuration required to secure an application with OpenID Connect can be specified in the deployment.

The first step is to create an oidc.json configuration file in the WEB-INF directory of the application. The second step is to set the auth-method to OIDC in the application’s web.xml file.

Here is an example of an oidc.json configuration file:

{
  "client-id" : "customer-portal",
  "provider-url" : "http://localhost:8180/auth/realms/demo",
  "ssl-required" : "external",
  "use-resource-role-mappings" : false,
  "enable-cors" : true,
  "cors-max-age" : 1000,
  "cors-allowed-methods" : "POST, PUT, DELETE, GET",
  "cors-exposed-headers" : "WWW-Authenticate, My-custom-exposed-Header",
  "enable-basic-auth" : false,
  "expose-token" : true,
  "verify-token-audience" : true,
   "credentials" : {
      "secret" : "234234-234234-234234"
   },

   "connection-pool-size" : 20,
   "socket-timeout-millis": 5000,
   "connection-timeout-millis": 6000,
   "connection-ttl-millis": 500,
   "disable-trust-manager": false,
   "allow-any-hostname" : false,
   "truststore" : "path/to/truststore.jks",
   "truststore-password" : "geheim",
   "client-keystore" : "path/to/client-keystore.jks",
   "client-keystore-password" : "geheim",
   "client-key-password" : "geheim",
   "token-minimum-time-to-live" : 10,
   "min-time-between-jwks-requests" : 10,
   "public-key-cache-ttl": 86400,
   "redirect-rewrite-rules" : {
   "^/wsmaster/api/(.*)$" : "/api/$1"
   }
}
Subsystem Configuration

Instead of adding configuration to your deployment to secure it with OpenID Connect as described in the previous section, another option is to add configuration to the elytron-oidc-client subsystem instead.

The following example shows how to add configuration to the elytron-oidc-client subsystem.

<subsystem xmlns="urn:wildfly:elytron-oidc-client:1.0">
    <secure-deployment name="DEPLOYMENT_RUNTIME_NAME.war">
        <client-id>customer-portal</client-id>
        <provider-url>http://localhost:8180/auth/realms/demo</provider-url>
        <ssl-required>external</ssl-required>
        <credential name="secret" secret="0aa31d98-e0aa-404c-b6e0-e771dba1e798" />
    </secure-deployment
</subsystem>

The secure-deployment resource allows you to provide configuration for a specific deployment. In the example above, the secure-deployment resource is providing the configuration that should be used for the DEPLOYMENT_RUNTIME_NAME.war deployment, where DEPLOYMENT_RUNTIME_NAME corresponds to the runtime-name for the deployment.

The various configuration options that can be specified in the secure-deployment configuration correspond to the same options that can be specified in the oidc.json configuration that was explained in the previous section.

If you have multiple applications that are being secured using the same OpenID provider, the provider configuration can be defined separately as shown in the example below:

<subsystem xmlns="urn:wildfly:elytron-oidc-client:1.0">
    <provider name="keycloak">
        <provider-url>http://localhost:8080/auth/realms/demo</provider-url>
        <ssl-required>external</ssl-required>
    </realm>
    <secure-deployment name="customer-portal.war">
        <provider>keycloak</provider>
        <client-id>customer-portal</client-id>
        <credential name="secret" secret="0aa31d98-e0aa-404c-b6e0-e771dba1e798" />
    </secure-deployment>
    <secure-deployment name="product-portal.war">
        <provider>keycloak</provider>
        <client-id>product-portal</client-id>
        <credential name="secret" secret="0aa31d98-e0aa-404c-b6e0-e771dba1e798" />
    </secure-deployment>
</subsystem>
Activation

The elytron-oidc-client subsystem will scan deployments to detect if the OIDC authentication mechanism is required for any web components (i.e., for each deployment, the subsystem will determine if OIDC configuration has either been found within the deployment or if there is OIDC configuration for the deployment in the subsystem configuration). If the subsystem detects that the OIDC mechanism is indeed required, the subsystem will activate the authentication mechanism automatically. Otherwise, no activation will occur and deployment will continue normally.

7.29.3. Virtual Security

The purpose of using OpenID Connect is to verify a user’s identity based on the authentication that’s been performed by the OpenID provider. For this reason, OpenID Connect deployments do not depend on security-domain resources that have been defined in the Elytron subsystem, like traditional deployments do. Instead, the elytron-oidc-client subsystem will automatically create and make use of its own virtual security domain across the deployment. No further managed configuration is required.

7.29.4. OpenID Providers

The provider-url attribute in the oidc.json configuration and in the elytron-oidc-client subsystem configuration allows you to specify the URL for the OpenID provider that you’d like to use. For WildFly 25, the elytron-oidc-client subsystem has been tested with the Keycloak OpenID provider. Other OpenID providers haven’t been extensively tested yet so the use of other OpenID providers should be considered experimental for now and should not be used in a production environment yet. Proper support for other OpenID providers will be added in a future WildFly release.

7.30. Simple configuration subsystems

The following subsystems currently have no configuration beyond its root element in the configuration

<subsystem xmlns="urn:jboss:domain:jdr:1.0"/>
<subsystem xmlns="urn:jboss:domain:pojo:1.0"/>
<subsystem xmlns="urn:jboss:domain:sar:1.0"/>

The presence of each of these turns on a piece of functionality:

Name Description

jdr

Enables the gathering of diagnostic data for use in remote analysis of error conditions. Although the data is in a simple format and could be useful to anyone, primarily useful for JBoss EAP subscribers who would provide the data to Red Hat when requesting support

pojo

Enables the deployment of applications containing JBoss Microcontainer services, as supported by previous versions of JBoss Application Server

sar

Enables the deployment of .SAR archives containing MBean services, as supported by previous versions of JBoss Application Server

8. Domain Setup

To run a group of servers as a managed domain you need to configure both the domain controller and each host that joins the domain. This sections focuses on the network configuration for the domain and host controller components. For background information users are encouraged to review the Operating modes and Configuration Files sections.

8.1. Domain Controller Configuration

The domain controller is the central government for a managed domain. A domain controller configuration requires two steps:

  • A host needs to be configured to act as the Domain Controller for the whole domain

  • The host must expose an addressable management interface binding for the managed hosts to communicate with it

Example IP Addresses

In this example the domain controller uses 192.168.0.101 and the host controller 192.168.0.10

Configuring a host to act as the Domain Controller is done through the domain-controller declaration in host.xml. If it includes the <local/> element, then this host will become the domain controller:

<domain-controller>
   <local/>
</domain-controller>

~(See domain/configuration/host.xml)~

A host acting as the Domain Controller must expose a management interface on an address accessible to the other hosts in the domain. Exposing an HTTP(S) management interface is not required, but is recommended as it allows the Administration Console to work:

<management-interfaces>
    <native-interface sasl-authentication-factory="management-sasl-authentication">
        <socket interface="management" port="9999"/>
    </native-interface>
    <http-interface http-authentication-factory="management-http-authentication">
        <http-upgrade enabled="true" sasl-authentication-factory="management-sasl-authentication"/>
        <socket interface="management" port="${jboss.management.http.port:9990}"/>
    </http-interface>
</management-interfaces>

The interface attributes above refer to a named interface declaration later in the host.xml file. This interface declaration will be used to resolve a corresponding network interface.

<interfaces>
   <interface name="management">
       <inet-address value="192.168.0.101"/>
   </interface>
</interfaces>

~(See domain/configuration/host.xml)~

Please consult the chapter "Interface Configuration" for a more detailed explanation on how to configure network interfaces.

Next by default the master domain controller is configured to require authentication so a user needs to be added that can be used by the slave domain controller to connect.

Make use of the add-user utility to add a new user, for this example I am adding a new user called slave.

add-user MUST be run on the master domain controller and NOT the slave.

8.2. Host Controller Configuration

Once the domain controller is configured correctly you can proceed with any host that should join the domain. The host controller configuration requires three steps:

  • The logical host name (within the domain) needs to be distinct

  • The host controller needs to know the domain controller IP address

Provide a distinct, logical name for the host. In the following example we simply name it "slave":

<host xmlns="urn:jboss:domain:3.0"
     name="slave">
[...]
</host>

~(See domain/configuration/host.xml)~

If the name attribute is not set, the default name for the host will be the value of the jboss.host.name system property. If that is not set, the value of the HOSTNAME or COMPUTERNAME environment variable will be used, one of which will be set on most operating systems. If neither is set the name will be the value of InetAddress.getLocalHost().getHostName().

An authentication-context needs to be defined in the elytron subsystem to contain the identity of the host controller.

<subsystem xmlns="urn:wildfly:elytron:14.0" final-providers="combined-providers" disallowed-providers="OracleUcrypto">
    <authentication-client>
        <authentication-configuration sasl-mechanism-selector="DIGEST-MD5"
                                      name="hostAuthConfig"
                                      authentication-name="slave"
                                      realm="ManagementRealm">
            <credential-reference clear-text="host_us3r_password"/>
        </authentication-configuration>
        <authentication-context name="hcAuthContext">
            <match-rule match-host="${jboss.test.host.master.address}"
                        authentication-configuration="hostAuthConfig"/>
        </authentication-context>
    </authentication-client>
....

Tell it how to find the domain controller so it can register itself with the domain:

<domain-controller>
   <remote protocol="remote" host="192.168.0.101" port="9999" authentication-context="hcAuthContext"/>
</domain-controller>

Since we have also exposed the HTTP management interface we could also use :

<domain-controller>
   <remote protocol="http-remoting" host="192.168.0.101" port="9990" username="slave" authentication-context="hcAuthContext"/>
</domain-controller>

~(See domain/configuration/host.xml)~

The name of each host needs to be unique when registering with the domain controller, however the username does not - using the username attribute allows the same account to be used by multiple hosts if this makes sense in your environment.

8.2.1. Ignoring domain wide resources

WildFly 10 and later make it easy for slave host controllers to "ignore" parts of the domain wide configuration. What does the mean and why is it useful?

One of the responsibilities of the Domain Controller is ensuring that all running Host Controllers have a consistent local copy of the domain wide configuration (i.e. those resources whose address does not begin with /host=*, i.e. those that are persisted in domain.xml. Having that local copy allows a user to do the following things:

  • Ask the slave to launch its already configured servers, even if the Domain Controller is not running.

  • Configured new servers, using different server groups from those current running, and ask the slave to launch them, even if the Domain Controller is not running.

  • Reconfigure the slave to act as the Domain Controller, allowing it to take over as the master if the previous master has failed or been shut down.

However, of these three things only the latter two require that the slave maintain a complete copy of the domain wide configuration. The first only requires the slave to have the portion of the domain wide configuration that is relevant to its current servers. And the first use case is the most common one. A slave that is only meant to support the first use case can safely "ignore" portions of the domain wide configuration. And there are benefits to ignoring some resources:

  • If a server group is ignored, and the deployments mapped to that server group aren’t mapped to other non-ignored groups, then the slave does not need to pull down a copy of the deployment content from the master. That can save disk space on the slave, improve the speed of starting new hosts and reduce network traffic.

  • WildFly supports "mixed domains" where a later version Domain Controller can manage slaves running previous versions. But those "legacy" slaves cannot understand configuration resources, attributes and operations introduced in newer versions. So any attempt to use newer things in the domain wide configuration will fail unless the legacy slaves are ignoring the relevant resources. But ignoring resources will allow the legacy slaves to work fine managing servers using profiles without new concepts, while other hosts can run servers with profiles that take advantage of the latest features.

Prior to WildFly 10, a slave could be configured to ignore some resources, but the mechanism was not particularly user friendly:

  • The resources to be ignored had to be listed in a fair amount of detail in each host’s configuration.

  • If a new resource is added and needs to be ignored, then each host that needs to ignore that must be updated to record that.

Starting with WildFly 10, this kind of detailed configuration is no longer required. Instead, with the standard versions of host.xml, the slave will behave as follows:

  • If the slave was started with the --backup command line parameter, the behavior will be the same as releases prior to 10; i.e. only resources specifically configured to be ignored will be ignored.

  • Otherwise, the slave will "ignore unused resources".

What does "ignoring unused resources" mean?

  • Any server-group that is not referenced by one of the host’s server-config resources is ignored.

  • Any profile that is not referenced by a non-ignored server-group, either directly or indirectly via the profile resource’s 'include' attribute, is ignored

  • Any socket-binding-group that is not directly referenced by one of the host’s server-config resources, or referenced by a non-ignored server-group, is ignored

  • Extension resources will not be automatically ignored, even if no non-ignored profile uses the extension. Ignoring an extension requires explicit configuration. Perhaps in a future release extensions will be explicitly ignored.

  • If a change is made to the slave host’s configuration or to the domain wide configuration that reduces the set of ignored resources, then as part of handling that change the slave will contact the master to pull down the missing pieces of configuration and will integrate those pieces in its local copy of the management model. Examples of such changes include adding a new server-config that references a previously ignored server-group or socket-binding-group, changing the server-group or socket-binding-group assigned to a server-config, changing the profile or socket-binding-group assigned to a non-ignored server-group, or adding a profile or socket-binding-group to the set of those included directly or indirectly by a non-ignored profile or socket-binding-group.

The default behavior can be changed, either to always ignore unused resources, even if --backup is used, or to not ignore unused resources, by updating the domain-controller element in the host-xml file and setting the ignore-unused-configuration attribute:

<domain-controller>
    <remote authentication-context="hcAuthContext" ignore-unused-configuration="false">
        <discovery-options>
            <static-discovery name="primary" protocol="${jboss.domain.master.protocol:remote}" host="${jboss.domain.master.address}" port="${jboss.domain.master.port:9999}"/>
        </discovery-options>
    </remote>
</domain-controller>

The "ignore unused resources" behavior can be used in combination with the pre-WildFly 10 detailed specification of what to ignore. If that is done both the unused resources and the explicitly declared resources will be ignored. Here’s an example of such a configuration, one where the slave cannot use the "org.example.foo" extension that has been installed on the Domain Controller and on some slaves, but not this one:

<domain-controller>
    <remote authentication-context="hcAuthContext" ignore-unused-configuration="true">
        <ignored-resources type="extension">
            <instance name="org.example.foo"/>
        </ignored-resources>
        <discovery-options>
            <static-discovery name="primary" protocol="${jboss.domain.master.protocol:remote}" host="${jboss.domain.master.address}" port="${jboss.domain.master.port:9999}"/>
        </discovery-options>
    </remote>
</domain-controller>

8.3. Server groups

The domain controller defines one or more server groups and associates each of these with a profile and a socket binding group, and also :

<server-groups>
    <server-group name="main-server-group" profile="default">
        <jvm name="default">
           <heap size="64m" max-size="512m"/>
           <permgen size="128m" max-size="128m"/>
        </jvm>
        <socket-binding-group ref="standard-sockets"/>
    </server-group>
    <server-group name="other-server-group" profile="bigger">
        <jvm name="default">
            <heap size="64m" max-size="512m"/>
        </jvm>
        <socket-binding-group ref="bigger-sockets"/>
    </server-group>
</server-groups>

~(See domain/configuration/domain.xml)~

The domain controller also defines the socket binding groups and the profiles. The socket binding groups define the default socket bindings that are used:

<socket-binding-groups>
    <socket-binding-group name="standard-sockets" default-interface="public">
        <socket-binding name="http" port="8080"/>
        [...]
    </socket-binding-group>
    <socket-binding-group name="bigger-sockets" include="standard-sockets" default-interface="public">
        <socket-binding name="unique-to-bigger" port="8123"/>
    </socket-binding-group>
</socket-binding-groups>

~(See domain/configuration/domain.xml)~
In this example the bigger-sockets group includes all the socket bindings defined in the standard-sockets groups and then defines an extra socket binding of its own.

A profile is a collection of subsystems, and these subsystems are what implement the functionality people expect of an application server.

<profiles>
    <profile name="default">
        <subsystem xmlns="urn:jboss:domain:web:1.0">
            <connector name="http" scheme="http" protocol="HTTP/1.1" socket-binding="http"/>
            [...]
        </subsystem>
        <\!-\- The rest of the subsystems here \-->
        [...]
    </profile>
    <profile name="bigger">
        <subsystem xmlns="urn:jboss:domain:web:1.0">
            <connector name="http" scheme="http" protocol="HTTP/1.1" socket-binding="http"/>
            [...]
        </subsystem>
        <\!-\- The same subsystems as defined by 'default' here \-->
        [...]
        <subsystem xmlns="urn:jboss:domain:fictional-example:1.0">
            <socket-to-use name="unique-to-bigger"/>
        </subsystem>
    </profile>
</profiles>

~(See domain/configuration/domain.xml)~
Here we have two profiles. The bigger profile contains all the same subsystems as the default profile (athough the parameters for the various subsystems could be different in each profile), and adds the fictional-example subsystem which references the unique-to-bigger socket binding.

8.4. Servers

The host controller defines one or more servers:

<servers>
    <server name="server-one" group="main-server-group">
        <\!-\- server-one inherits the default socket-group declared in the server-group \-->
        <jvm name="default"/>
    </server>
 
    <server name="server-two" group="main-server-group" auto-start="true">
        <socket-binding-group ref="standard-sockets" port-offset="150"/>
        <jvm name="default">
            <heap size="64m" max-size="256m"/>
        </jvm>
    </server>
 
    <server name="server-three" group="other-server-group" auto-start="false">
        <socket-binding-group ref="bigger-sockets" port-offset="250"/>
    </server>
</servers>

~(See domain/configuration/host.xml)~

server-one and server-two both are associated with main-server-group so that means they both run the subsystems defined by the default profile, and have the socket bindings defined by the standard-sockets socket binding group. Since all the servers defined by a host will be run on the same physical host we would get port conflicts unless we used <socket-binding-group ref="standard-sockets" port-offset="150"/> for server-two. This means that server-two will use the socket bindings defined by standard-sockets but it will add 150 to each port number defined, so the value used for http will be 8230 for server-two.

server-three will not be started due to its auto-start="false". The default value if no auto-start is given is true so both server-one and server-two will be started when the host controller is started. server-three belongs to other-server-group, so if its auto-start were changed to true it would start up using the subsystems from the bigger profile, and it would use the bigger-sockets socket binding group.

8.4.1. JVM

The host controller contains the main jvm definitions with arguments:

<jvms>
    <jvm name="default">
        <heap size="64m" max-size="128m"/>
    </jvm>
</jvms>

~(See domain/configuration/host.xml)~
From the preceeding examples we can see that we also had a jvm reference at server group level in the domain controller. The jvm’s name must match one of the definitions in the host controller. The values supplied at domain controller and host controller level are combined, with the host controller taking precedence if the same parameter is given in both places.

Finally, as seen, we can also override the jvm at server level. Again, the jvm’s name must match one of the definitions in the host controller. The values are combined with the ones coming in from domain controller and host controller level, this time the server definition takes precedence if the same parameter is given in all places.

Following these rules the jvm parameters to start each server would be

Server JVM parameters

server-one

-Xms64m -Xmx128m

server-two

-Xms64m -Xmx256m

server-three

-Xms64m -Xmx128m

9. Management tasks

9.1. Command line parameters

To start up a WildFly managed domain, execute the $JBOSS_HOME/bin/domain.sh script. To start up a standalone server, execute the $JBOSS_HOME/bin/standalone.sh. With no arguments, the default configuration is used. You can override the default configuration by providing arguments on the command line, or in your calling script.

9.1.1. System properties

To set a system property, pass its new value using the standard jvm -Dkey=value options:

$JBOSS_HOME/bin/standalone.sh -Djboss.home.dir=some/location/wildFly \
    -Djboss.server.config.dir=some/location/wildFly/custom-standalone

This command starts up a standalone server instance using a non-standard AS home directory and a custom configuration directory. For specific information about system properties, refer to the definitions below.

Instead of passing the parameters directly, you can put them into a properties file, and pass the properties file to the script, as in the two examples below.

$JBOSS_HOME/bin/domain.sh --properties=/some/location/jboss.properties
$JBOSS_HOME/bin/domain.sh -P=/some/location/jboss.properties

Note however, that properties set this way are not processed as part of JVM launch. They are processed early in the boot process, but this mechanism should not be used for setting properties that control JVM behavior (e.g. java.net.perferIPv4Stack) or the behavior of the JBoss Modules classloading system.

The syntax for passing in parameters and properties files is the same regardless of whether you are running the domain.sh, standalone.sh, or the Microsoft Windows scripts domain.bat or standalone.bat.

The properties file is a standard Java property file containing key=value pairs:

jboss.home.dir=/some/location/wildFly
jboss.domain.config.dir=/some/location/wildFly/custom-domain

System properties can also be set via the xml configuration files. Note however that for a standalone server properties set this way will not be set until the xml configuration is parsed and the commands created by the parser have been executed. So this mechanism should not be used for setting properties whose value needs to be set before this point.

Controlling filesystem locations with system properties

The standalone and the managed domain modes each use a default configuration which expects various files and writable directories to exist in standard locations. Each of these standard locations is associated with a system property, which has a default value. To override a system property, pass its new value using the one of the mechanisms above. The locations which can be controlled via system property are:

Standalone
Property name Usage Default value

java.ext.dirs

The JDK extension directory paths

null

jboss.home.dir

The root directory of the WildFly installation.

Set by standalone.sh to $JBOSS_HOME

jboss.server.base.dir

The base directory for server content.

jboss.home.dir/standalone

jboss.server.config.dir

The base configuration directory.

jboss.server.base.dir/configuration

jboss.server.data.dir

The directory used for persistent data file storage.

jboss.server.base.dir/data

jboss.server.log.dir

The directory containing the server.log file.

jboss.server.base.dir/log

jboss.server.temp.dir

The directory used for temporary file storage.

jboss.server.base.dir/tmp

jboss.server.deploy.dir

The directory used to store deployed content

jboss.server.data.dir/content

Managed Domain
Property name Usage Default value

jboss.home.dir

The root directory of the WildFly installation.

Set by domain.sh to $JBOSS_HOME

jboss.domain.base.dir

The base directory for domain content.

jboss.home.dir/domain

jboss.domain.config.dir

The base configuration directory

jboss.domain.base.dir/configuration

jboss.domain.data.dir

The directory used for persistent data file storage.

jboss.domain.base.dir/data

jboss.domain.log.dir

The directory containing the host-controller.log and process-controller.log files

jboss.domain.base.dir/log

jboss.domain.temp.dir

The directory used for temporary file storage

jboss.domain.base.dir/tmp

jboss.domain.deployment.dir

The directory used to store deployed content

jboss.domain.base.dir/content

jboss.domain.servers.dir

The directory containing the output for the managed server instances

jboss.domain.base.dir/servers

9.1.2. Other command line parameters

The first acceptable format for command line arguments to the WildFly launch scripts is

--name=value

For example:

$JBOSS_HOME/bin/standalone.sh --server-config=standalone-ha.xml

If the parameter name is a single character, it is prefixed by a single '-' instead of two. Some parameters have both a long and short option.

-x=value

For example:

$JBOSS_HOME/bin/standalone.sh -P=/some/location/jboss.properties

For some command line arguments frequently used in previous major releases of WildFly, replacing the "=" in the above examples with a space is supported, for compatibility.

-b 192.168.100.10

If possible, use the -x=value syntax. New parameters will always support this syntax.

The sections below describe the command line parameter names that are available in standalone and domain mode.

Standalone
Name Default if absent Value

--admin-only

-

Set the server’s running type to ADMIN_ONLY causing it to open administrative interfaces and accept management requests but not start other runtime services oraccept end user requests.

--server-config -c

standalone.xml

A relative path which is interpreted to be relative to jboss.server.config.dir. The name of the configuration file to use.

--read-only-server-config

-

A relative path which is interpreted to be relative to jboss.server.config.dir. This is similar to --server-config but if this alternative is specified the server willnot overwrite the file when the management model is changed. However a full versioned history is maintained of the file.

--graceful-startup

true

Start the servers in gracefully, queuing or cleanly rejecting incoming requests until the server is fully started.

--git-repo

-

remote Git repository URL to use for configuration directory and content repository content or local if only a local repository is to be used.

--git-branch

master

The Git branch or tag to be used. If a tag name is used then the future commits will go into the detached state.

--git-auth

-

A URL to an Elytron configuration file containing the credentials to be used for connecting to the Git repository.

Managed Domain
Name Default if absent Value

--admin-only

-

Set the server’s running type to ADMIN_ONLY causing it to open administrative interfaces and accept management requests but not start servers or, if this host controlleris the master for the domain, accept incoming connections from slave host controllers.

--domain-config -c

domain.xml

A relative path which is interpreted to be relative to jboss.domain.config.dir. The name of the domain wide configuration file to use.

--read-only-domain-config

-

A relative path which is interpreted to be relative to jboss.domain.config.dir. This is similar to --domain-config but if this alternative is specified the host controllerwill not overwrite the file when the management model is changed. However a full versioned history is maintained of the file.

--host-config

host.xml

A relative path which is interpreted to be relative to jboss.domain.config.dir. The name of the host-specific configuration file to use.

--read-only-host-config

-

A relative path which is interpreted to be relative to jboss.domain.config.dir. This is similar to --host-config but if this alternative is specified the host controller willnot overwrite the file when the management model is changed. However a full versioned history is maintained of the file.

The following parameters take no value and are only usable on slave host controllers (i.e. hosts configured to connect to a remote domain controller.)

Name Function

--backup

Causes the slave host controller to create and maintain a local copy (domain.cached-remote.xml) of the domain configuration. If ignore-unused-configuration is unset in host.xml,a complete copy of the domain configuration will be stored locally, otherwise the configured value of ignore-unused-configuration in host.xml will be used. (See ignore-unused-configuration for more details.)

--cached-dc

If the slave host controller is unable to contact the master domain controller to get its configuration at boot, this option will allow the slave host controller to boot and becomeoperational using a previously cached copy of the domain configuration (domain.cached-remote.xml.) If the cached configuration is not present, this boot will fail. This file is created using using one ofthe following methods:- A previously successful connection to the master domain controller using --backup or --cached-dc.- Copying the domain configuration from an alternative host to domain/configuration/domain.cached-remote.xml.The unavailable master domain controller will be polled periodically for availability, and once becoming available, the slave host controller will reconnect to the master host controller and synchronize the domainconfiguration. During the interval the master domain controller is unavailable, the slave host controller will not be able make any modifications to the domain configuration, but it may launch servers and handlerequests to deployed applications etc.

Common parameters

These parameters apply in both standalone or managed domain mode:

Name Function

-b=<value>

Sets system property jboss.bind.address to <value>. See Controlling the Bind Address with -b for further details.

-b<name>=<value>

Sets system property jboss.bind.address.<name> to <value> where name can vary. See Controlling the Bind Address with -b for further details.

-u=<value>

Sets system property jboss.default.multicast.address to <value>. See Controlling the Default Multicast Address with -u for further details.

--version -v -V

Prints the version of WildFly to standard output and exits the JVM.

--help-h

Prints a help message explaining the options and exits the JVM.

9.1.3. Controlling the Bind Address with -b

WildFly binds sockets to the IP addresses and interfaces contained in the <interfaces> elements in standalone.xml, domain.xml and host.xml. (See Interfaces and Socket Bindings for further information on these elements.) The standard configurations that ship with WildFly includes two interface configurations:

<interfaces>
    <interface name="management">
        <inet-address value="${jboss.bind.address.management:127.0.0.1}"/>
    </interface>
    <interface name="public">
       <inet-address value="${jboss.bind.address:127.0.0.1}"/>
    </interface>
</interfaces>

Those configurations use the values of system properties jboss.bind.address.management and jboss.bind.address if they are set. If they are not set, 127.0.0.1 is used for each value.

As noted in Common Parameters, the AS supports the -b and -b<name> command line switches. The only function of these switches is to set system properties jboss.bind.address and jboss.bind.address.<name> respectively. However, because of the way the standard WildFly configuration files are set up, using the -b switches can indirectly control how the AS binds sockets.

If your interface configurations match those shown above, using this as your launch command causes all sockets associated with interface named "public" to be bound to 192.168.100.10.

$JBOSS_HOME/bin/standalone.sh -b=192.168.100.10

In the standard config files, public interfaces are those not associated with server management. Public interfaces handle normal end-user requests.

The interface named "public" is not inherently special. It is provided as a convenience. You can name your interfaces to suit your environment.

To bind the public interfaces to all IPv4 addresses (the IPv4 wildcard address), use the following syntax:

$JBOSS_HOME/bin/standalone.sh -b=0.0.0.0

You can also bind the management interfaces, as follows:

$JBOSS_HOME/bin/standalone.sh -bmanagement=192.168.100.10

In the standard config files, management interfaces are those sockets associated with server management, such as the socket used by the CLI, the HTTP socket used by the admin console, and the JMX connector socket.

The -b switch only controls the interface bindings because the standard config files that ship with WildFly sets things up that way. If you change the <interfaces> section in your configuration to no longer use the system properties controlled by -b, then setting -b in your launch command will have no effect.

For example, this perfectly valid setting for the "public" interface causes -b to have no effect on the "public" interface:

<interface name="public">
   <nic name="eth0"/>
</interface>

The key point is the contents of the configuration files determine the configuration. Settings like -b are not overrides of the configuration files. They only provide a shorter syntax for setting a system properties that may or may not be referenced in the configuration files. They are provided as a convenience, and you can choose to modify your configuration to ignore them.

9.1.4. Controlling the Default Multicast Address with -u

WildFly may use multicast communication for some services, particularly those involving high availability clustering. The multicast addresses and ports used are configured using the socket-binding elements in standalone.xml and domain.xml. (See Socket Bindings for further information on these elements.) The standard HA configurations that ship with WildFly include two socket binding configurations that use a default multicast address:

<socket-binding name="jgroups-mping" port="0" multicast-address="${jboss.default.multicast.address:230.0.0.4}" multicast-port="45700"/>
<socket-binding name="jgroups-udp" port="55200" multicast-address="${jboss.default.multicast.address:230.0.0.4}" multicast-port="45688"/>

Those configurations use the values of system property jboss.default.multicast.address if it is set. If it is not set, 230.0.0.4 is used for each value. (The configuration may include other socket bindings for multicast-based services that are not meant to use the default multicast address; e.g. a binding the mod-cluster services use to communicate on a separate address/port with Apache httpd servers.)

As noted in Common Parameters, the AS supports the -u command line switch. The only function of this switch is to set system property jboss.default.multicast.address. However, because of the way the standard AS configuration files are set up, using the -u switches can indirectly control how the AS uses multicast.

If your socket binding configurations match those shown above, using this as your launch command causes the service using those sockets configurations to be communicate over multicast address 230.0.1.2.

$JBOSS_HOME/bin/standalone.sh -u=230.0.1.2
As with the -b switch, the -u switch only controls the multicast address used because the standard config files that ship with WildFly sets things up that way. If you change the <socket-binding> sections in your configuration to no longer use the system properties controlled by -u, then setting -u in your launch command will have no effect.

9.2. Suspend, Resume and Graceful shutdown

9.2.1. Core Concepts

WildFly introduces the ability to suspend and resume servers. This can be combined with shutdown to enable the server to gracefully finish processing all active requests and then shut down. When a server is suspended it will immediately stop accepting new requests, but wait for existing requests to complete. A suspended server can be resumed at any point, and will begin processing requests immediately. Suspending and resuming has no effect on deployment state (e.g. if a server is suspended singleton Jakarta Enterprise Beans’s will not be destroyed). As of WildFly 11 it is also possible to start a server in suspended mode which means it will not accept requests until it has been resumed. Servers will also be suspended during the boot process, so no requests will be accepted until the startup process is 100% complete.

Suspend/Resume has no effect on management operations; management operations can still be performed while a server is suspended. If you wish to perform a management operation that will affect the operation of the server you can suspend the server, perform the operation, and then resume the server. This allows all requests to finish, and makes sure that no requests are running while the management changes are taking place.

If you perform a management operation while the server is suspended, and the response to that operation includes the operation-requires-reload or operation-requires-restart response headers, then the operation will not take full effect until that reload or restart is done. Simply resuming the server will not be sufficient to cause the change to take effect.

When a server is suspending it goes through four different states:

  • RUNNING - The normal state, the server is accepting requests and running normally

  • PRE_SUSPEND - In PRE_SUSPEND the server will notify external parties that it is about to suspend, for example mod_cluster will notify the load balancer that the deployment is suspending. Requests are still accepted in this phase.

  • SUSPENDING - All new requests are rejected, and the server is waiting for all active requests to finish. If there are no active requests at suspend time this phase will be skipped.

  • SUSPENDED - All requests have completed, and the server is suspended.

9.2.2. Starting Suspended

In order to start into suspended mode when using a standalone server you need to add --start-mode=suspend to the command line. It is also possible to specify the start-mode in the reload operation to cause the server to reload into suspended mode (other possible values for start-mode are normal and admin-only).

In domain mode servers can be started in suspended mode by passing the suspend=true parameter to any command that causes a server to start, restart or reload (e.g. :start-servers(suspend=true)).

9.2.3. The Request Controller Subsystem

WildFly introduces a new subsystem called the Request Controller Subsystem. This optional subsystem tracks all requests at their entry point, which is how the graceful shutdown mechanism knows when all requests are done. (It also allows you to provide a global limit on the total number of running requests).

If this subsystem is not present suspend/resume will be limited. In general things that happen in the PRE_SUSPEND phase will work as normal (stopping message delivery, notifying the load balancer); however the server will not wait for all requests to complete and instead will move straight to SUSPENDED mode.

There is a small performance penalty associated with the request controller subsystem (about on par with enabling statistics), so if you do not require the suspend/resume functionality this subsystem can be removed to get a small performance boost.

9.2.4. Subsystem Integrations

Suspend/Resume is a service provided by the WildFly platform that any subsystem may choose to integrate with. Some subsystems integrate directly with the suspend controller, while others integrate through the request controller subsystem.

The following subsystems support graceful shutdown. Note that only subsystems that provide an external entry point to the server need graceful shutdown support. For example the Jakarta RESTful Web Services subsystem does not require suspend/resume support as all access to Jakarta RESTful Web Services is through the web connector.

  • Undertow - Undertow will wait for all requests to finish.

  • mod_cluster - The mod_cluster subsystem will notify the load balancer that the server is suspending in the PRE_SUSPEND phase.

  • Jakarta Enterprise Beans - Jakarta Enterprise Beans will wait for all remote Jakarta Enterprise Beans requests and MDB message deliveries to finish. Delivery to MDB’s is stopped in the PRE_SUSPEND phase. Jakarta Enterprise Beans timers are suspended, and missed timers will be activated when the server is resumed.

  • Batch - Batch jobs will be stopped at a checkpoint while the server is suspending. They will be restarted from that checkpoint when the server returns to running mode.

  • EE Concurrency - The server will wait for all active jobs to finish. All jobs that have already been queued will be skipped.

  • Transactions - The transaction subsystem waits for all running transactions to finish while the server is suspending. During that time the server refuses to start any new transaction. But any in-flight transaction will be serviced - e.g. the server will accept any incoming remote call which carries the context of a transaction already started at the suspending server.

Transactions and Jakarta Enterprise Beans

When you work with Jakarta Enterprise Beans you have to enable the graceful shutdown functionality by setting the attribute enable-graceful-txn-shutdown to true. For example, in the ejb3 subsystem section of standalone.xml:

<enable-graceful-txn-shutdown value="false"/>

By default graceful shutdown is disabled for the ejb subsystem. The reason for this is that the behavior might be unwelcome in cluster environments, as the server notifies remote clients that the node is no longer available for remote calls only after the transactions are finished. During that brief window of time, the client of a cluster may send a new request to a node that is shutting down and it will refuse the request because it is not related to an existing transaction. If this attribute enable-graceful-txn-shutdown is set to false, we disable the graceful behavior and Jakarta Enterprise Beans clients will not attempt to invoke the node when it suspends, regardless of active transactions.

9.2.5. Standalone Mode

Suspend/Resume can be controlled via the following CLI operations and commands in standalone mode:

:suspend(suspend-timeout=x)

Suspends the server. If the timeout is specified it will wait in the SUSPENDING phase up to the specified number of seconds for all requests to finish. If there is no timeout specified or the value is less than zero it will wait indefinitely.

:resume

Resumes a previously suspended server. The server should be able to begin serving requests immediately.

:read-attribute(name=suspend-state)

Returns the current suspend state of the server.

shutdown --suspend-timeout=x

If a timeout parameter is passed to the shutdown command then a graceful shutdown will be performed. The server will be suspended, and will wait in SUSPENDING state up to the specified number of seconds for all requests to finish before shutting down. A timeout value of less than zero means it will wait indefinitely.

9.2.6. Domain Mode

Domain mode has similar operations as standalone mode, however they can be applied at global, server group, server and host levels:

Whole Domain

:suspend-servers(suspend-timeout=x)

:resume-servers

:stop-servers(suspend-timeout=x)

Server Group

/server-group=main-server-group:suspend-servers(suspend-timeout=x)

/server-group=main-server-group:resume-servers

/server-group=main-server-group:stop-servers(suspend-timeout=x)

Server

/host=master/server-config=server-one:suspend(suspend-timeout=x)

/host=master/server-config=server-one:resume

/host=master/server-config=server-one:stop(suspend-timeout=x)

Host level

/host=master:suspend-servers(suspend-timeout=x)

/host=master:resume-servers

/host=master:shutdown(suspend-timeout=x)

Note that even though the host controller itself is being shut down, the suspend-timeout attribute for the shutdown operation at host level is applied to the servers only and not to the host controller itself.

9.2.7. Graceful Shutdown via an OS Signal

If you use an OS signal like TERM to shut down your WildFly standalone server process, e.g. via kill -15 <pid>, the WildFly server will shut down gracefully. By default, the behavior will be analogous to a CLI shutdown --suspend-timeout=0 command; that is the process will not wait in SUSPENDING state for in-flight requests to complete before proceeding to SUSPENDED state and then shutting down. A different timeout can be configured by setting the org.wildfly.sigterm.suspend.timeout system property. The value of the property should be an integer indicating the maximum number of seconds to wait for in-flight requests to complete. A value of -1 means the server should wait indefinitely.

Graceful shutdown via an OS signal will not work if the server JVM is configured to disable signal handling (i.e. with the -Xrs argument to java). It also won’t work if the method used to terminate the process doesn’t result in a signal the JVM can respond to (e.g. kill -9).

In a managed domain, Process Controller and Host Controller processes will not attempt any sort of graceful shutdown in response to a signal. A domain mode server may, but the proper way to control the lifecycle of a domain mode server process is via the management API and its managing Host Controller, not via direct signals to the server process.

9.2.8. Non-graceful Startup

By default, WildFly starts up gracefully, meaning that incoming requests are queued or cleanly rejected until the server is ready to process them. In some instances, though, it may be desirable to allow the server to begin to process requests at the earliest possible moment. One such example might be when two deployed applications need to interact with one another during the deployment or application startup. In one such scenario, Application A needs to make a REST request to Application B to get information vital to its own startup. Under a graceful startup, the request to Application B will block until the server is fully started. However, the server can’t fully start, as Application A is waiting for data from Application B before its deploy/startup can complete. In this situation, a deadlock occurs, and the server startup times out.

A non-graceful startup is intended to address this situation in that it will allow WildFly to begin attempting to answer requests as soon as possible. In the scenario above, assuming Application B has successfully deployed/started, Application A can also start immediately, as its request will be fulfilled. Note, however, that a race condition can occur: if Application B is not yet deployed (e.g., the deploy order is incorrect, or B has not finished starting), then Application A may still fail to start since Application B is not available. WildFly users making use of non-graceful startups must be aware of this and take steps to remedy those scenarios. With a non-graceful startup, however, WildFly will no longer be the cause of a deployment failure in such a configuration.

Some discussion here of how this relates to reloading and restarting, as well as to suspended starts, is important. When reloading, the ApplicationServerService is stopped, and a new one started. It is equivalent to if it was being started the first time: all the same stuff happens, but it happens faster because a lot of classloading and static initialization doesn’t have to happen again. This includes honoring the value of graceful-startup, so if the server was initially started non-gracefully, it will be reloaded in the same manner.

Restarting the server is similar. A restart means a new JVM, so all the initialization happens again, exactly as it did on the first start. When restarting in domain mode, the Host Controller simply rereads the config file and does the same thing it did the first time. In standalone, the restart is driven by standalone.[sh|ps1|bat]. The running JVM exits with a specific exit code, which the script recognizes and starts a new server, using the same parameters as the first start, so if you start a server non-gracefully, you will restart a server non-gracefully.

Finally, there’s start-mode=suspend. In the event that an administrator specifies a suspended start as well as a non-graceful start, the suspended start will "win". That is to say, the server will start in a suspended mode, the graceful-start=false will be disregarded, and the server will log a message indicating that this is happening.

9.3. Starting and Stopping Servers in a Managed Domain

Starting a standalone server is done through the bin/standalone.sh script. However in a managed domain server instances are managed by the domain controller and need to be started through the management layer:

First of all, get to know which servers are configured on a particular host:

[domain@localhost:9990 /] :read-children-names(child-type=host)
{
   "outcome" => "success",
   "result" => ["local"]
}
 
 
[domain@localhost:9990 /] /host=local:read-children-names(child-type=server-config)
{
   "outcome" => "success",
   "result" => [
       "my-server",
       "server-one",
       "server-three"
   ]
}

Now that we know, that there are two servers configured on host " local", we can go ahead and check their status:

[domain@localhost:9990 /] /host=local/server-config=server-one:read-resource(include-runtime=true)
{
   "outcome" => "success",
   "result" => {
       "auto-start" => true,
       "group" => "main-server-group",
       "interface" => undefined,
       "name" => "server-one",
       "path" => undefined,
       "socket-binding-group" => undefined,
       "socket-binding-port-offset" => undefined,
       "status" => "STARTED",
       "system-property" => undefined,
       "jvm" => {"default" => undefined}
   }
}

You can change the server state through the " start" and " stop" operations

[domain@localhost:9990 /] /host=local/server-config=server-one:stop
{
   "outcome" => "success",
   "result" => "STOPPING"
}
Navigating through the domain topology is much more simple when you use the web interface.

9.4. JVM settings

Configuration of the JVM settings is different for a managed domain and a standalone server. In a managed domain, the domain controller components are responsible for starting and stopping server processes and hence determine the JVM settings. For a standalone server, it’s the responsibility of the process that started the server (e.g. passing them as command line arguments).

9.4.1. Managed Domain

In a managed domain the JVM settings can be declared at different scopes: For a specific server group, for a host or for a particular server. If not declared, the settings are inherited from the parent scope. This allows you to customize or extend the JVM settings within every layer.

Let’s take a look at the JVM declaration for a server group:

<server-groups>
       <server-group name="main-server-group" profile="default">
           <jvm name="default">
               <heap size="64m" max-size="512m"/>
           </jvm>
           <socket-binding-group ref="standard-sockets"/>
       </server-group>
       <server-group name="other-server-group" profile="default">
           <jvm name="default">
               <heap size="64m" max-size="512m"/>
           </jvm>
           <socket-binding-group ref="standard-sockets"/>
       </server-group>
</server-groups>

(See domain/configuration/domain.xml )

In this example the server group "main-server-group" declares a heap size of 64m and a maximum heap size of 512m. Any server that belongs to this group will inherit these settings. You can change these settings for the group as a whole, or a specific server or host:

<servers>
       <server name="server-one" group="main-server-group" auto-start="true">
           <jvm name="default"/>
       </server>
       <server name="server-two" group="main-server-group" auto-start="true">
           <jvm name="default">
               <heap size="64m" max-size="256m"/>
           </jvm>
           <socket-binding-group ref="standard-sockets" port-offset="150"/>
       </server>
       <server name="server-three" group="other-server-group" auto-start="false">
           <socket-binding-group ref="standard-sockets" port-offset="250"/>
       </server>
</servers>

~(See domain/configuration/host.xml)~

In this case, server-two, belongs to the main-server-group and inherits the JVM settings named default, but declares a lower maximum heap size.

[domain@localhost:9999 /] /host=local/server-config=server-two/jvm=default:read-resource
{
   "outcome" => "success",
   "result" => {
       "heap-size" => "64m",
       "max-heap-size" => "256m",
   }
}
Using filesystem locations as JVM options on domain mode

The Controlling filesystem locations with system properties section describes the available system properties associated with relevant WildFly file system paths. In addition to all the domain mode properties, the following server specific properties are also available for resolution as JVM options:

  • jboss.server.base.dir

  • jboss.server.log.dir

  • jboss.server.data.dir

  • jboss.server.temp.dir

This ability is useful when you need to configure JVM settings without specifying a specific server name. For example, if you want to redirect the GC logging to a file to the default log server directory, you can configure the following JVM option at host level:

[domain@localhost:9990 /] /host=master/jvm=default:add-jvm-option(jvm-option="-Xlog:gc:file=${jboss.server.log.dir}/gc.log")
{
    "outcome" => "success",
    "result" => undefined,
    "server-groups" => {"main-server-group" => {"host" => {"master" => {"server-two" => {"response" => {
        "outcome" => "success",
        "response-headers" => {
            "operation-requires-restart" => true,
            "process-state" => "restart-required"
        }
    }}}}}}
}

9.4.2. Standalone Server

For a standalone sever you have to pass in the JVM settings either as command line arguments when executing the $JBOSS_HOME/bin/standalone.sh script, or by declaring them in $JBOSS_HOME/bin/standalone.conf. (For Windows users, the script to execute is %JBOSS_HOME%/bin/standalone.bat while the JVM settings can be declared in %JBOSS_HOME%/bin/standalone.conf.bat.)

9.5. Audit logging

WildFly comes with audit logging built in for management operations affecting the management model. By default it is turned off. The information is output as JSON records.

The default configuration of audit logging in standalone.xml looks as follows:

    <management>
        <security-realms>
...
        </security-realms>
        <audit-log>
            <formatters>
                <json-formatter name="json-formatter"/>
            </formatters>
            <handlers>
                <file-handler name="